Cardiovascular I Flashcards Preview

Board Review - B - Systems Pharmacology > Cardiovascular I > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular I Deck (56)
1

tx essential HTN

thiazide
ACE I
ARBs
DHP CCBs

2

tx HTN with heart failure

diureti
ACE I
ARBs
CCB
aldosterone antagonist
beta-agonist

3

beta-blocker in heart failure

use with caution decompensated HF

CI in cardiogenic shock

4

protective against diabetic nephropathy

ACE I
ARBs

5

tx HTN in pregnancy

hydalazine
labetalol
methyldopa
nifedipine

6

amlodipine

DHP Ca channel blocker

7

clevidipine

DHP Ca channel blocker

8

nicardipine

DHP Ca channel blocker

9

nifedipine

DHP Ca channel blocker

10

nimodipine

DHP Ca channel blocker

11

diltiazem

nonDHP Ca channel blocker

12

verapamil

nonDHP Ca channel blocker

13

DHP vs. non-DHP

DHP - act on vasc smooth m

non-DHP - act on heart

14

CCB mechanism

block voltage dependent L-type Ca channels cardiac and smooth muscle

decreased muscle contractility

heart - non-DHP
vasc smooth m - DHP

15

tx subarachnoid bleed

nimodipine
prevent cerebral vasospasm

16

tx atrial fib/flutter

non-DHP CCB

17

adverse nonDHP CCB

AV block

18

adverse CCB

cardiac depression
peripheral edema
flushing
dizzy
constipation
gingival hyperplasia

19

hyperPRL

seen with verapamil - adverse effect

20

hydralazine MOA

increase cGMP
-smooth m relaxation
-vasodilate arteriole > veins
-decrease afterload

21

hydralazine adverse

compensatory tachy
fluid retention
HA
angina
lupus like syndrome

22

nitroprusside MOA

short acting
incraese cGMP - via direct release NO

23

adverse nitroprusside

CN toxicity
-releases cyanide

24

fenoldopam MOA

dopamine D1 agonist

coronary, peripheral, renal, splanchnic vasodilation

decreased BP
increased natriureis

25

tx HTN emergency

clevidipine
fenoldopam
labetalol
nicardipine
nitroprusside

26

nitrates MOA

increased NO vasc smooth m
increase cGMP
smooth m relaxation

dilate vein > arteries
decreased preload

27

nitroglycerin

nitrate

28

isosorbide dinitrite

nitrate

29

isosorbide mononitrite

nitrate

30

adverse nitrates

reflex tachy (tx with beta-blockers)

hypotension
flushing
HA

31

monday disease

tolerance for vasodilator during week
-loss of tolerance on weekend

with nitrate use

tachy, dizzy, HA upon reexposure

32

determinants of myocardial O2 consumption

end-diastolic volume
BP
HR
contractility

target of antianginal therapy

33

pindolol and acebutolol

CI in angina

partial beta-agonists

34

antiangina tx

nitrates
beta blockers
combo nitrates/beta blockers

35

statin MOA

HMG CoA reductase inhibitors

36

effect of statins

greatly decreased LDL**

increased HDL and decreased TG

37

adverse statins

hepatotoxic
myoapthy

38

bile acid resin MOA

prevent intestinal reabsorption of bile acids

liver must use cholesterol to make more

39

adverse bile acid resins

GI upset
decreased absorption other drugs
decreased absorption fat soluble vits

40

cholestyramine

bile acid resin

41

colestipol

bile acid resin

42

colesevelam

bile acid resin

43

effect of bile acid resin

larger decrease LDL

44

ezetimibe MOA

prevent cholesterol absorption small intestine brush border

45

effect of ezetimibe

decreased LDL

46

adverse ezetimibe

diarrhea
increased liver function tests

47

gemfibrozil

fibrate

48

colfibrate

fibrate

49

bezafibrate

fibrate

50

fenofibrate

fibrate

51

fibrate MOA

upregulated LPL - increased TG clearance

activate PPAR-a - induce HDL synthesis

52

adverse fibrates

myopathy
cholesterol gallstones

53

effects of fibrates

greatly decreased TGs

54

niacin MOA

vit B3

inhibit lipolysis

reduced hepatic VLDL synthesis

55

adverse niacin

red, flushed face

decreased by NSAIDs

hyperglycemia
hyperuricemia

56

effects of niacin

increased HDL
decreased LDL

also slight decrease TG