Flashcards in Chapter 10 - Launching the New Ship of State, 1789-1800 Deck (46)
Areas to the west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Only president to be unanimously elected by the Electoral College. Served from 1790 - 1798.
Presidential advisers, first started by George Washington. Started as just meetings between the heads of the original department (Sec of State Jefferson, Sec of War Henry Know, and Sec of Treasury Alexander Hamilton.)
A leading Democratic-Republican, he opposed Hamilton’s ideas. Washington tended to side with Hamilton, so Jefferson resigned.
A leading Federalist, he supported industry and strong central government. He created the National Bank and managed to pay off the U.S.’s early debts through tariffs and the excise tax on whiskey.
A Revolutionary War hero, Henry Knox had served as Secretary of War under the Articles of Confederation, and stayed on in that capacity as part of Washington’s cabinet
Drafted, proposed and argued for the passage of the Bill of Rights.
Added to make sure that just because the Constitution spelled out certain rights, that didn’t mean they were the only ones to be protected.
All rights not spelled out in the Constitution would by default go to the states to decide for themselves.
Created the federal court system, allowed the president to create federal courts and to appoint judges.
Became the first chief justice of the Supreme Court.
Funding at Par
The government guarantee that they would pay off all debts incurred by the previous government at face value, and with interest. Helped to build our credit rating with the world.
Assumption of State Debts
Old state debts from the Revolutionary War would be transferred to the new federal government. Would tie the states and the wealthy more closely to the success of the federal government.
Taxes placed on imports that are designed to make money for the government. This was the main source of money for our early government.
Tariffs that are high enough that they discourage any competition and so do not raise much in taxes.
Taxes placed on manufactured products. The excise tax on whiskey helped raise revenue for Hamilton’s program.
Bank of the United States
Part of Hamilton’s Plan, it would save the government’s surplus money until it was needed.
Strict interpretation forbids the government from doing anything except what the Constitution specifically empowers it to do.
Loose interpretation allows the government to do anything which the Constitution does not specifically forbid it from doing.
Section 8 of Article I contains a long list of powers specifically granted to Congress, and ends with the statement that Congress shall also have the power "to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers." These unspecified powers are known as Congress' "implied" powers. There has long been a debate as to how much power this clause grants to Congress, which is sometimes referred to as the "elastic" clause because it can be "stretched" to include almost any other power that Congress might try to assert.
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay’s Rebellion.
Unorganized groups of people who shared the same general ideas about the path of the country. Antifederalists vs. federalists, and whigs vs. tories were factions instead of organized parties.
Organized political groups that are much more rigid than factions. They share many of the same ideas as a factions, but are more established in their rules and organization.
The first modern political party, based on Jefferson’s view of the future of the country. They were a reaction to the Hamiltonian view of trying to become an industrial power. The Democratic-Republicans fought for an agrarian utopia of small self-sufficient farmers where a powerful federal government would not be necessary. Their support was based mostly from the lower classes and farmers in the south and west.
The other first modern party, they backed Hamilton and Adams’ view of having a manufacturing base in the country that the government should take an active role in helping. They favored higher protective tariffs and a stronger federal government.
The second great democratic revolution, taking place in the 1790s, after the American Revolution had been proven to be a success. The U.S. did nothing to aid either side. The French people overthrew the king and his government, and then instituted a series of unsuccessful democratic governments until Napoleon took over as dictator in 1799. The Jeffersonians were big supporters of the ideals of the Revolution, even in the period known as the Reign of Terror.
Reign of Terror
The explosion of violence in France after the French Revolution. It was marked by the mass executions of all “enemies of liberty.” The ideas of logic and reason gave way to suspicion and anger, and the eventual deaths of up to 40,000 French citizens. The Jeffersonians began to back track their support of the revolution as this gained steam.
Our original alliance with France during our Revolution. We were supposed to honor it, and join the fight against England. Washington chose not to, and remained neutral.
Washington’s declaration that the U.S. would not take sides after the French Revolution touched off a war between France and a coalition consisting primarily of England, Austria and Prussia. Washington's Proclamation was technically a violation of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778.