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Flashcards in Chapter 14 Deck (58)
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1

Which article of the Constitution establishes the Judiciary?

Article III

2

How are judges chosen?

Presidential appointees instated by the Senate, for state courts there is senatorial courtesy

3

What are some factors that go into choosing judges?

race, gender, party, and ideology

4

How is the are the American courts more powerful than the British courts?

British courts do not have the power to overturn Parliament's laws

5

What established Judicial Review?

Marbury vs Madison

6

What are the three federal court systems?

Supreme Court, Circuit Court (court of appeals), and District Courts

7

What are District Courts?

the lowest courts that hear a majority of cases, only have original jurisdiction

8

What system is American judicial process based on?

adversary system

9

what is the adversary system?

A system where the court is the neutral arena for two sides to argue their differences, based on the fight theory which guarantees fairness

10

What kind of power is judicial power?

passive and reactive, judges cannot investigate cases, only interpret the evidence

11

What kind of cases can judges decide on?

Justiciable disputes

12

What are justiciable disputes?

Lawsuits that grow out of actual controversies

13

What does standing issue to sue mean?

It means that the plaintiff must have an actual risk of personal injury not a hypothetical case

14

What are class action suits?

cases in which a small number of people represent all other people similarly situated

15

How large is the influence of class action suits?

very, they can force major changes in public policy

16

Who can file suits under civil law?

people who seek monetary awards for injuries to themselves or their property and individuals against a business

17

Who can file suits under criminal law?

only the government

18

What is the public defender system?

the government provides poor defendants with lawyers

19

What type of disputes can courts not always resolve?

political questions, they sometimes require the use of methods not suitable to courts

20

How are state and Federal courts related?

they have separate but related jobs, the states interpret state constitutions and the federal interprets the countries constitution

21

what is original versus appellate jurisdiction?

original is when it is the first time the case has been reviewed, appellate is after the case is appealed

22

What is the circuit court?

also known as the court of appeals, mostly appellate cases, more powerful than district courts

23

How many courts is the Circuit court split into?

11 allocated by geography and population, a 12th is in DC

24

What kind of juries are there for district courts?

petit and grand, grand for criminal indictments and petit for trials

25

what are magistrate judges?

officials who perform a variety of judicial duties

26

What article gives the president the right to appoint judges?

article II

27

What has changed about recent judicial appointments?

they are more controversial as lower courts are viewed as political players now

28

What role does ideology play in choosing judges?

presidents want to choose the "right" kind of democrat or republican, republicans are usually conservative democrats liberal

29

What is judicial self-restraint versus judicial activism?

self-restraint means that they interpret the constitution as the founders meant it and activism is adapting to the current times

30

Do judges make laws?

Yes, they interpret the constitution and apply legislative statues to concrete situations