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Flashcards in chapter 8: opinion, voting Deck (67):
0

Interviews conducted to learn candidate preference and the issue positions of potential voters

Canvass

1

The distribution of individual preferences for or evaluations of a given issue, candidate, or institution within a specific population

Public opinion

2

The portion of the population which holds a particular opinion

Distribution

3

How is public opinion collected?

Polls and surveys

4

Every individual has a known chance of being selected for a survey

Random sample

5

What is the general margin of error?

3 percent in any direction

6

Why is writing accurate polls so difficult?

The wording of the questions can influence the answers

7

Questions which permit respondents to answer in their own words

Open ended questions

8

Why are open ended questions the most effective?

Respondents can express their views more clearly and provide deeper insight.

9

What 4 things, in addition to the data, must a scientific poll report?

1) sample size
2) margin of error
3) time questioned
4) place

10

When a substantial percentage agrees, it's called a _______.

Consensus

11

When opposing sides feel intensely about an issue, it's called _______.

Polarizing

12

2 examples of polarizing issues

The Vietnam War
Gay marriage

13

3 factors which make public opinion are

Intensity
Latency
Salience

14

Public opinions which exist, but may not have been fully expressed

Latency

15

Why would leaders want to know latent opinions?

They will know how to mobilize people and draw them to the polls

16

Example of latent opinion in US

Desire for security against foreign enemies

17

The extent to which people believe issues are relevant to them

Salience

18

Salient issues in the 70s

Vietnam and watergate

19

Salient issues now

Health care, education, and war in the Middle East

20

The process by which we develop our political attitudes

Political socialization

21

A consciousness of the nation and of belonging to that entity

Nationalism

22

What percent of Americans know the name of their congressional candidates?

15

23

What percent of Americans make up the attentive public?

25

24

Citizens who follow public affairs closely

Attentive public

25

Political know nothings

About 67% of Americans, who are interests in politics only sometimes and who rarely vote

26

Those who participate selectively in elections, usually only presidential elections

Part time citizens, 40% of population

27

How can people in totalitarian governments participate in politics?

Violently via revolution

28

Why was the 2000 election controversial?

The vote count in Florida was too close to call

29

What effect did the 2000 election have on voting technology?

An upgrade in voting technology and a banning of punchcard ballots on Florida

30

Most typical political activity

Voting

31

First state to allow women to vote

New Jersey

32

System designed to reduce voter fraud by limiting voting to those who have established eligibility by submitting the proper form

Voter registration

33

A secret ballot printed by the state

Australian ballot

34

Who prepared ballots in the 1800s? What color were they?

The parties; there was a different color for every party

35

What state does not require voter registration?

North Dakota

36

What is the nickname for the National Voter Registration Act? When was it passed?

Motor Voter; 1993

37

Bill which established voter registration while applying for or renewing driver's license

Motor Voter act

38

How often is voter registration purged? Why?

4 years from registration; to allow for death and change of residence

39

What do primary elections determine?

Party nominees

40

Elections to replace senators who have died or resigned.

Special elections

41

Elections held on off numbered calendar years

Off year elections

42

Proportion of voting aged public who votes

Turnout

43

How does nonvoting create a class bias?

The upperclass tends to vote most, so policies tend to reflect their interests

44

3 main factors of voting choices

Party identification
Candidate appeal
Issues

45

Party identification

A psychological sense of attachment to one party or another

46

Since 1952, which party has had the most Presidential winners?

Republican

47

Nominally, what is the largest party?

Democrat

48

How voters feel about a candidate's background, personality, and leadership ability

Candidate appeal

49

Why did Eisenhower have so much candidate appeal?

Popular general and war hero, charm, moderate, lack of strong party position

50

Least important factor in the decision process; why?

Issues, candidates often obscure where they stand so they can appeal to more people

51

Most important factor in the decision process

Candidate appeal

52

Voting based in what a candidate pledges to do in the future about an issue if elected

Prospective issue voting

53

Holding the incumbent party responsible for past performances on issues

Retrospective issue voting

54

An example of a stable opinion

Death penalty

55

Opinions that don't change over a person's lifetime

Stable

56

When do fluid opinions change?

With every event and issue

57

An example of a fluid opinion

Approval of the president

58

An example of a latent opinion

Selective service

59

Informal polls

Straw polls

60

Mentality emphasized during campaign based on who is winning, not what they stand for

Horse race

61

What did the Voting Rights Act of 1965 eliminate?

Literacy tests to vote

62

What was the record voting turnout? When?

56% in 2008

63

Why is voter turnout over 90% in Western European countries?

Compulsion penalties

64

What day of the week are elections held on?

Tuesday

65

What factor most makes people likely to vote

A high level of education

66

Opinions you aren't aware if until they're aroused.

Latent opinions