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Flashcards in chapter 11: interest groups Deck (89):
0

Why is consensus harder to reach than ever?

Moderates are being replaced by more ideological politicians

1

Bill which was passed in 2003 despite intense conflict

Prescription Drug Bill of 2003

2

Cap on the number of House members

435

3

2 requirements to be a member of the House of Representatives

At least 25 years old, citizen for 7 years

4

Requirements to be a senator

At least 30 years old, citizen for 9 years

5

Why do senators have higher requirements and longer terms?

To check the more unpredictable house

6

Why didn't the constitution have term limits?

The term limits in the Articles of Confederation had forced good statesmen out

7

What is the best stand for a congress hopeful to take in their campaign?

Fighting against the institution of Congress

8

How many House members is each state guaranteed?

1

9

How many people are represented in each House district?

650,000

10

The assigning of congressional seats after each census

Reapportionment

11

Who approves reapportionment in most states?

Governor

12

Which states approve reapportionment by commissions?

Arizona and Iowa

13

The redrawing of congressional district lines following the census to accommodate population shifts

Redistricting

14

The assigning of congressional seats after each census

Reapportionment

15

The drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent

Gerrymandering

16

For whom was gerrymandering named?

1811 Massachusetts governor, Eldbridge Gerry

17

Designed to concentrate a minority party's votes in the smallest number of districts possible

Packing

18

Who gerrymanders today?

Sophisticated computer programs

19

Designed to disperse a party's votes into as many districts as possible, weakening their influence

Cracking

20

Time period when everyone seves

Term

21

When do new terms begin?

January 3rd of odd numbered years

22

The end of a term

Adjournment

23

Tax bill

Revenue bill

24

Statewide elections

At large elections

25

Most important organizational feature of the US Congress.

Bicameralism

26

An elected office that is predictably won by one party or the other, so the success of that party's candidate is almost taken for granted.

Safe seat

27

The current holders of an elected office

Incumbents

28

In the 2004 Congressional election, what was the spending difference between winners and losers?

4:1

29

State with the most expensive Congressional campaigns

South Dakota

30

Why were bicameral legislatures common in colonial government?

Framers believed the arrangement was essential for preventing strong willed majorities from controlling and oppressing minorities

31

The powers explicitly given to Congress

Enumerated powers

32

Elastic clause

Congress can create all laws deemed necessary and proper for national welfare

33

What are the grounds of impeachment?

High Crimes and Misdemeanors

34

What role does the Senate play in making treaties?

Advise and consent

35

What portion of Senate's vote is required to ratify a treaty?

2/3

36

Revenue bills must originate from which branch of Congress?

House

37

3 factors which have made president more important than Congress in the eyes of the people

1) National security responsibilities
2) Media visibility
3) Preparation of the budget

38

How many votes are required to end a debate in the senate?

60

39

How can the House generate immediate action?

Unanimous vote

40

What is it called when the House has a unanimous vote?

Committee of the Whole

41

the smallest number of people who must be present at a meeting in order for decisions to be made.

Quorum

42

The presiding officer in the House

Speaker

43

How is the Speaker of the House chosen?

Formally elected in the House, but actually selected by the majority party

44

The legislative leader selected by the majority party who helps plan party strategy and keep members in line

Majority leader

45

The legislative leader selected by the minority party as a spokesperson for the opposition

Minority leader

46

Party leader who is the liaison between the leadership and the rank-and-file in the legislature

Whip

47

A meeting of the members of party in a legislative chamber to select party leaders and to develop party policy

Party caucus

48

What do Republicans call party caucuses?

A conference

49

A procedural rule in the House that prohibits any amendments to bills

Closed rule

50

A procedural rule in the House that permits floor amendments within the overall time allocated to the bill

Open rule

51

How many votes per year do congress members usually cast?

1,000

52

What factor is most likely to influence a congressman's voting pattern?

Policy and philosophical convictions

53

Consistently rated most liberal senator

Barbara Boxer

54

Rated most conservative senator

Pat Roberts

55

Where do most liberals in congress originate?

Western states

56

Where do most conservative congress members originate?

The south

57

What percentage of constituents have not contacted their congressmembers?

70%

58

Why do congressmembers typically follow demands of their constituents?

Concern over reelection

59

When congressmembers look to colleagues for advice on how to vote, who are they likely to seek?

Friends who worked on the bill

60

Why has congress expanded staff?

Increasingly demanding schedules of congressmen, as well as complex issues

61

What branch of congress has the highest number of staff? Why?

Senate; because they have less senators to split the budget between

62

What kind of work is done in district offices?

Generating favorable publicity, arranging appearances, scheduling, and contacting important leaders in the region

63

What do congressional staff members typically do?

Draft bills, do research, negotiate, build coalitions

64

Why are congressional staff so influential?

They have direct access to members of congress

65

7 Factors which influence the way a congressmember votes on issues

1) policy and philosophical convictions
2) voters
3) colleagues
4) congressional staff
5) party
6) interest groups
7) the president

66

What percentage of House Republicans voted to impeach Clinton?

98%

67

When did partisan voting become popular in congress?

The 1970s

68

Which branch of congress has a stronger alignment to parties?

The House

69

How do interest groups influence congressional votes?

They provide information for making laws as well as help finance campaigns for those who will let them make more laws

70

When are interest groups especially effective?

When they mobilize grassroots movements

71

When do presidents have the most influence over congressional votes?

In times of foreign conflict, when the public rallies around them.

72

How many bills were introduced in 2003?

7,000

73

How many bills passed in 2003?

174

74

4 steps of a bill becoming law

Introduction, committee review, floor debate, presidential approval

75

Box where bills are placed

Hopper

76

Who can introduce a bill?

Only a member of the house or senate

77

Who evaluates a bill after it has been introduced?

The committee specializing in that area

78

How many committees was President Bush's homeland security bill evaluated by?

10

79

Largest government reorganization since 1937

The creation of the Department of Homeland security

80

What is the legislative record?

A record of everything that is discussed in a committee

81

What is the purpose of the legislative record?

Helps the president and federal courts interpret what Congress intended

82

Cleaning up the wording or amending a bill

Mark up

83

Petition that, if signed the a majority of the members of the house, will pry a bill from committee and bring it to the floor

Discharge petition

84

Does the senate have discharge petitions?

No

85

When is the busiest time of the year for bill passage?

The end of the congressional session; late September-October

86

How long does a bill have to pass before it is killed?

2 years

87

If a bill is passed in both houses, what must happen?

Reconciliation, when the two versions of the bill are put together

88

Pocket veto

When congress is adjourned and the president does not sign a law in 10 days, it does not become law