Flashcards in chapter 9: campaigns and elections Deck (56):
An election system in which the candidate with the most votes wins
Winner take all system
An electoral district in which voters choose one representative or official
Single member district
An election system in which each party running receives the proportion of legislative seats corresponding to its proportion of the vote
The electoral system used in electing the president and Vice President
Voters vote for electors pledged to cast their votes for a particular party's candidates
An elected office that is predictably one by a particular party
A meeting of a local party members to choose party officials and decide the platform
Financial contributions by individuals or groups in the hope of influencing the outcome of an election and subsequently influencing policy
Contributions to a state or local party
Promoting a particular position or an issue paid for by interest groups or individuals--not candidates
Interest groups organized under section 527 of the Internal Revenue Code, may advertise for or against candidates
Money spent by individuals or groups, not associated with candidates to elect or defeat candidates for office
Which election convinced people the system needs improvement? Why?
The 2000 presidential election, because the winner was unclear
Why do we have fixed and standard terms?
To add predictability
Length of term for a House representative
Length of term for a senator
How many senators are up for election at a given time?
A politician who cannot or will not run again
What portion of voters approve of term limits?
What section of government, by ruling of the Supreme Court, doesn't need to limit terms?
Another name for winner take all
First past the post
To win most elections, politicians do not need a majority but _______.
In 2000, how many congressmen were decided by plurality?
Ten (3 senators and 7 house members)
How do minor parties fair in the system of winner take all and single member districts?
It's difficult to win
3 countries who practice proportional representation
Germany, Israel, and Japan
An elector who does not cast his or her vote based on their state's popular winner
How are electoral votes allotted in most states?
The popular winner in the people's vote takes all the electoral votes for that state
What states split electoral votes?
Nebraska and Maine
If no candidate gets a majority of electoral vote, who chooses president and Vice President?
House and Senate, respectively
When has the vote for president and VP gone to congress?
1800, when there was a tie between Jefferson and Burr,
and in 1824, Adams and Jackson (Adams narrowly won)
What was the Corrupt Bargain of 1824?
Clay, who came in fourth in the election, threw his support behind Adams during the congressional vote for president. As a thank you, Adams made him his VP.
Who won the popular vote in the election of 2000? Who won president?
Gore (popular won by 500,000) and Bush (electoral victory by 5) respectively.
How many times has the popular vote not won the presidency?
In 1824, who won the popular vote?
Jackson. But after an electorate tie, Adams took the presidency
What state has the most electoral votes?
California at 55
Is it possible to have a president and Vice President from two different parties?
Yes, if the vote goes to congress and the house and senate are controlled by two different parties.
Amendment which limits president to two terms
Largest number of votes
Amendment which requires electors to vote separately for president and Vice President
Who counts electoral ballots?
Where do electors gather to cast their vote?
Their state capitols
More money in a campaign does what for competitiveness?
Drawing district boundaries which enhanced the reelection prospects of incumbents or one party
Who spends more in a House campaign? (Incumbent or challenger)
3 focuses of Federal Election Campaign Acts
Disclosure, limitations on campaign contributions, and subsidies
Why are limitations on campaign contributions controversial?
Threatens freedom of expression promised in first amendment
Who conducts federal elections?
Where do subsidies for presidential campaigns come from?
People can choose to contribute to the fund by checking a box on their income taxes
Why did Obama opt not to accept subsidies in his 2008 campaign?
He did not want to limit his spending
How much can PACS contribute to each election? (Primary and General)
What is another name for BCRA?
In 2010, what did Citzens United vs FEC establish?
Corporations can air ads explicitly criticizing candidates, but they cannot contribute financially to any campaign
Most well known Conservative 527.
Swift Vote Veterans
Most well known Democrat 527
What percent of the popular vote must minor presidential candidates receive in order to get subsidies on their campaigns?