Flashcards in Chapter 15 - Growth and Development Deck (61)
what are 3 important influences that affect individual growth and development?
1) early exposure to physical activities
2) critical periods
early development of what 5 things is essential for growth and development?
balance, coordination, strength, flexibility and endurance
times of particular sensitivity to environmental stimuli
what affects the potential for optimal development?
the presence or absence of appropriate stimuli at this critical period
true or false: optimal development is quite early in development
implies that the individual is prepared or ready, to acquire a particular behaviour or skill
performance requires what 4 needs?
1) desire to perform
4) acquisition of physical characteristics
what are the 3 stages of growth and development?
what age category is infancy in?
birth to 1 year
true or false: growth is a slow process in infancy
FALSE: infancy is a period of rapid growth
are males or females usually heavier and taller at birth?
what age category is childhood?
1 year to 13 years
what are the 3 divisions of childhood and what ages are each?
1) early childhood (1-6)
2) mid-childhood (6-10)
3) late-childhood (10-13)
list 5 features of early childhood
1) gradual loss of "baby fat"
2) girls lose less fat than boys
3) rapid growth but not as rapid as infancy
4) quite flexible
5) muscle development while at play
list 2 features of mid-childhood
1) slower, more constant growth
2) improved coordination and motor functioning
list 6 features of late childhood
1) increased rate of growth
2) fat deposition just prior to adolescent growth spurt
3) individual differences in maturation
4) development of the reproductive system
5) appearance of secondary sex characteristics
6) redistribution of body weight
when does fat deposition just prior to adolescent growth spurt occur in girls? boys?
girls = 9-10
boys = 11-12
true or false: during late childhood boys muscle tissue increases and their body fat decreases while girls body fat slightly increases
what may account for females ability to achieve world class status across many sports?
earlier onset of maturation in females
who is tara lipinski?
the youngest US ladies' figure skating champion (14 when she won)
what age category is adolescence?
what are 4 features of adolescence?
1) following puberty
2) ends with onset of adulthood
3) obvious differences in physical growth cease with the end of the adolescence time period
4) the variability of body types (somatotypes) become more evident
what are the 3 somatotypes?
true or false: everyone is one specific somatotype
FALSE: usually individuals are a combination of these types
when do external social pressures for the "ideal" body type tend to occur?
adolescence is combined with what 3 type of changes that occur during the period?
physical, hormonal and psychological
true or false: the adolescent growth spurt occurs approx. 2 years earlier in girls than in boys
true or false: there is a significant difference between female and male physique prior to puberty
FALSE: prior to puberty, there is not a significant difference between female and male physique
true or false: within each of the life stages, there is individuality and variability in growth and development among people