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Flashcards in chapter 3 Test Deck (68):
1

mercantilism

a theory that a country should try to keep as much bullion, or gold and silver, as possible

2

balance of trade

the difference in value between imports and exports

3

duty

tax

4

salutary neglect

British colony policy during the 1700's; the stuff where they had to trade all that fun stuff with England

5

staple crop

crops that are in constant demand

6

triangular trade

trade between three points of the Americas, Europe and Africa

7

immigrant

people who enter a new country to settle

8

great awakening

revival of religious feeling

9

itinerant

traveling

10

dissent

difference of opinion

11

almanac

book containing information such as calendars, weather predictions, proverbs, and advice

12

indigo

a type of plant used in making a blue dye for cloth

13

self-sufficient

able to make everything needed to maintain itself

14

middle passage

one leg of the triangular trade between the Americas, Europe, and Africa; also used for the transport of slaves

15

mutiny

revolt

16

gentry

wealthy people who set themselves apart by their clothing

17

artisans

at early age boys form most families became apprentices/ when they did this they would work for another person in exchange for learning a trade

18

printers

gathered and circulated local news and information/ had to be cautious with what stories to report/ one of the most famous printers was Benjamin Franklin (he wrote the Poor Richard's almanac

19

farmers + fishermen

farm sizes varied from large cash crops in the southern colonies to small subsistence farms in the New England and Middle colonies / New england farmers had a reputation for being tough, thrifty, and conservative/ fishing quickly became a main industry and promoted growth in the related industry of shipbuilding

20

indentured servant

agreed to work for a master for a set amount of time, up to seven years/ masters had to pay for travel costs in exchange for the work/ masters had total authority/ those who served out of their time were granted their freedom and in some cases a piece of land

21

women

were under control of their husband/ women had a lot of household duties; cooking, gardening, washing, cleaning, weaving cloth and sewing/ it was legal to hit women

22

what was the british governments policy towards the colonies after the rule of King James II?

they became a self government. This meant, there were governors appointed by the king. These governors had a great amount of power, being able to call all of the meetings, veto laws, and could appoint local officials

23

causes of salutary neglect

civil war
lacked money and resources to enforce/
England benefitted because the colonies provided them with raw materials and England gave them manufactured goods

24

what were the effects of those causes of the salutary neglect

colonies became somewhat independent/
caused trade with other colonies like britain/
developed their own self governments

25

what was the great awakening

the great awakening was an indirect challenge to the hierarchical social order of the British Colonies because the people of the middle or even bottom of the society thought that they could act on their own faith, not depending on any authority. This led them to think that some people are better than others, a thought that would eventually have revolutionary consequences

26

increase in population of colonial expansion

birth rate increased/ death rate increased/ immigrants increased/ people began to feel crowded in their colonies

27

increase in territory of colonial expansion

based on the increase in population; fathers tried to provide their sons with some land of their own, there was not enough land to go around to do all this/ because of the lack of land it made it more difficult for American men to secure their independence by owning private property/ colonies could not flourish

28

native american and french of colonial expansion

native americans were also moving west; forced the indians to relocate into other lands/ because of the migration the french set defenders to strengthen different settlements; this caused conflicts

29

what would happen if countries used the theory of mercantilism

they would have a balance of trade

30

what needed to happen for a country to successfully execute mercantilism

export more good than they imported

31

when were the navigation acts

1660

32

what were the only three crops that could be traded with england

sugar
tobacco
cotton

33

what would have to happen if they wanted to sell anything to people in other parts of the world or if it was a different good

If they wanted to sell anything to people in other parts of the world they had to sail their ships into England and from there pay a tax on everything/
They had to sail in English ships

34

which region was the most diverse

middle colonies

35

why were ... diverse

they could farm
commerce

36

new england

trade was very important/
had farms but didn't make along of money

37

middle colonies

farming
trade

38

southern colonies

staple crops
agricultural

39

N.C and marlyand crops

tobacco

40

S.C crops

rice

41

Georgia crops

rice and eventually cotton

42

what was the major ethnicity in all of the colonies

England by far; almost 50%

43

what was something that caused all the emerging tensions

all the ethnicities

44

french moving west:

had a conflict with the english/ was not only about the land but the fur trade as well; wanted complete control of it

45

native Americans moving westward

also had a conflict, with the english, had good relaiotnship with the french/ the english would move the native americans off their land

46

where is new france located

along the st. lawrence river

47

what is the capital of new france

quebec

48

what did they settle along rivers for

food
trade
defense
fertile soil for farming

49

what were the two ways the salves were packed

tightly and loosely packed

50

which was could fit more slaves

tightly

51

tightly packed

laid down side by side with another slave and chained during the entire voyage

52

loosely packed

sitting side by side or back to back , chained, with another slave

53

what was the death rate of the slaves on the ships

50%

54

where were most of the slaves that come over from

west africa

55

how did they come over

were kindapped
bought and sent over; point is none came over willingly

56

diaspora

scattering or africans

57

where did most africans land

brazil

58

where did the least amount of slaves land

north america

59

how were slaves bought in america

auctioned off to the highest bidder

60

after being bought what would the slaves have to go through

put through a "seasoning" process

61

what language did the slaves speak and what were their names

they learned a european language, were named a european land (usually the last name of its owner)

62

who had already brought some slaves to south and latin america

portuguese and spanish

63

when did the first slaves come over to america and where

1619 in jamestown by the Dutch

64

when did the first slaves come to rhode island and where

1696 in Newport

65

why not enslave the native population

were highly likely to catch european diseases; were not used to the germs that they had; did not have a strong immune system for it/
they were familiar with the terrain and could escape easier/
they had political allies that could fight against the owners

66

who made up the southern colonies

virginia, maryland, south Carolina, north carolina and Georgia

67

who made up the middle colonies

maryland, New York, Delaware, Philadelphia

68

who made up the New England colonies

Boston, salem, and newport, Rhode Island