Vocab and significance Flashcards Preview

EEP History > Vocab and significance > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vocab and significance Deck (137):
1

impressment

when the British were seizing and capturing American Ships that had British citizens on them; one of the underlying causes of the war of 1812

2

treaty of ghent

agreement signed in 1814 that ended the war of 1812; all the old boundaries of US and British territories were restored (kept the northern line)

3

depressions

severe economic downturn marked by a decrease of business activity, widespread unemployment; caused the panic of 1819, people took to much money out of the bank so people were ending up bankrupt

4

Missouri compromise

1820 Agreement calling for admission of Missouri as a slave state.. and Maine as a free state.. outlawing slavery in future states, 36, 30 latitude; set the future boundaries for slave states, made Maine a state, as the U.S expanded westward the North would be free and the south would be slave states

5

market revolution

shift from a home based economy to one based on money and the buying and selling of goods; it changed the way that Americans bought and sold good, led to Industrialism

6

manufacturing

making of goods by machinery; it allowed Americans to mass produce goods and products which boosted the economy

7

free enterprise system

economic system in which companies compete for profits; rewarded people who could find more efficient ways of running a business, encouraged the creation of new industries, jobs, and wealth

8

capital

wealth that can be invested to produce goods and make money; helped to start the creation of banks

9

bank note

piece of paper that a bank issues to its customers that can be exchanged for gold or silver coin; used to pay for goods and services, as a type of currency

10

population density

the average number of people living within a given area; manufacturing caused increase in North pop. which led to the growth of cities

11

industrialization

growth of industry; became the staple of the Northern economy.. produced more goods

12

strike

work stoppage intended to force employers to meet certain demands such as higher wages or better working conditions; encouraged employers to give higher wages and better working conditions

13

labor union

organization of workers form to protect the interest of its members; ended up working

14

Turner's Rebellion

unsuccessful slave revolt led by Nat Turner in 1831; pushed southerners to increase restrictions on their slaves and passed laws restricting slave people from learning to tread

15

McCulloch v. Maryland

1819 case in which the supreme court ruled that congress has the authority to take actions necessary to fulfill its constitutional duties; established the national bank

16

Dartmouth College v. Woodward

1819 case in which the supreme court ruled that states could not interfere with contracts; protected business contracts, providing further stability to the economy

17

Gibbons v. Ogden

1824 case in which the supreme court ruled that states could not regulate commerce on interstate waterways; it gave the federal government authority over all types of interstate business

18

Monroe Doctrine

declaration by pres. Monroe in 1823 that the US would oppose efforts by any outside power to control a nation in the western hemisphere; to prevent war with the British

19

patronage

the practice of hiring political supporters for government jobs; became known as the spoil system under Jackson

20

spoil sytem

system of giving pointed offices as reward as successful party in an election; name for the patronage system under Jackson and his administration

21

Tarif of 1828

a high tariff on manufactured goods called the tariff of abomination by southerners; encouraged northern manufacturing and benefited the northern economy

22

secede

to withdraw membership in a group; Divided the north and south and led to the Civil war

23

Indian Removal Act

1830 law calling for the forced movement of Native Americans to west of the Mississippi river; led to the trail of tears, destroyed relations with the Indians

24

trail of tears

forced movement of Cherokees in 1838-1839 to land west of the Mississippi; destroyed relations and opened up land in Georgia for farming

25

transcendentalism

philosophical movement of the mid 1800's that emphasized spiritual discovery and insight rather than reason; part of the second great awakening and encouraged people to be more self-reliant and moral

26

temperance movement

an organized campaign to eliminate alcohol consumption; lowered consumption by 50% and

27

abstinence

refrain from some activity such as drinking alcoholic beverages

28

segregate

forced separation; made it harder for African Americans to get medication

29

utopian community

a small society dedicated to perfection in all areas of life; based off of all the bad things that were going on.. resulted in shakers and mormons

30

abolitionist movement

movement to end slavery; pushed for an end to slavery

31

emancipation

freeing of enslaved people;

32

underground railroad

network of escape routes that provided protection and transportation for slaves fleeing north; transported runaway slaves to the north or Canada where they could be free

33

gag rule

rule passed by the house in 1836 prohibiting anti-slavery petitions from being read or acted upon;

34

Seneca Falls Convention

first women rights convention in us history help in 1848

35

suffrage

right to vote; what women were fighting for

36

Irish Potato Famine

famine in Ireland in the 1840's that led to a surge in immigration to the U.S; Irish workers took American jobs for lower wages and further over populated northern cities

37

naturalize

to apply for and be granted American citizenship

38

Great Plains

vast grassland between the Mississippi river and the Rocky Mts.

39

middleman

someone who buys items from one source, and sells them to others.;(Mandan Indians & Fur Trade)

40

nomad

person who continually migrates instead of living permanently in one place.

41

presidio

spanish fort

42

secularize

to put under the control of the government rather than the Church.

43

Santa Fe Trail

trail linking Independence, Missouri, and Santa Fe, NM, in the mid 1800's

44

mountain man

an American fur trader who explored the Rocky Mts. and regions further west in the 1800's

45

trek

a journey

46

Oregon Trail

trail linking Independence, Missouri to Oregon.

47

manifest destiny

argument that the U.S. was destined to expand across North America

48

annex

join or attach

49

Mexican War

conflict between the U.S. and Mexico from 1846 - 1848

50

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

treaty signed in 1848 by the U.S and Mexico ending the Mexican War.

51

Gadsden Purchase

1853 Purchase by the U.S of Southwestern lands from Mexico

52

California Gold Rush

Mass migration to California following the discovery of gold in 1848.

53

boom town

town that has experienced rapid growth

54

ghost town

town that has been abandoned due to lack of economic activity

55

Union

Northern part of the U.S. during the Civil War

56

Compromise of 1850

Agreement designed to ease tensions over the expansion of slavery into Western Territories

57

Fugitive Slave Act

part of the compromise of 1850, a law ordering all citizens of the U.S. to assist in the return of runaway slaves

58

States' Rights

theory that states have the right to nullify acts of the federal government and even leave the Union if wished to do so

59

nativism

devotion to one's nation

60

Kansas-Nebraska Act

1854 law that called on citizens of each territory to decide issue of slavery there.

61

popular sovereignty

policy of letting the people in a territory decide whether slavery would be there or not.

62

free soiler

person dedicated to preventing the expansion of slavery into the western territories

63

Scott v. Sandford

1857 supreme court decision that declared slaves not to be citizens and overturned Missouri Compromise.

64

arsenal

place where weapons are made or stored

65

border states

in the Civil War, the states between the North and South, Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri.

66

secessionist

person who wanted the south to secede

67

Confederate States of America

Southern states during the Civil War.

68

Fort Sumter

federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, SC. Confederate attack on the fort marked start of the civil war.

69

casualty

persons killed, wounded, or missing in battle.

70

war of attrition

a war in which one side inflicts constant losses on the enemy in order to wear down their strength

71

shell

device that explodes in the air or hits a solid target

72

canister

a special kind of shell filled with bullets

73

draft

program of required military service

74

recognition

official acceptance as an independent territory or country

75

greenback

name given to national paper currency created in 1862

76

martial law

emergency rule by military authorities

77

Copperhead

during the Civil War, an anti-northern democrat.

78

Writ of Habeas Corpus

a legal protection requiring that a court determine if a person is lawfully imprisoned

79

Emancipation Proclamation

Presidential decree effective January 1st, 1863 that freed slaves in Confederate-held territory

80

contraband

items seized from an enemy during wartime

81

siege

tactic in which an enemy is surrounded and starved in order to cause surrender

82

Gettysburg Address

a famous speech by President Lincoln on the meaning of the Civil War given in November, 1863 at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of Gettysburg.

83

Thirteenth Amendment

constitutional amendment ratified in 1865 that abolished slavery

84

guerrilla

a soldier who uses hit-and-run tactics.

85

who did the second great awakening involve

protestant christians

86

when is a movement evangelical? 3 things

the scripture is the final authority, salvation can only be achieved through a persona belief in jesus christ, people demonstrate true faith by leading a changed life

87

what happened with detonations bc of the second great awakening

many new denominations formed

88

essentially what did the great awakening do

changed society religiously as well as helped form societies values and women started having a say in things

89

what did the industrial revolution do

allow them to make goods faster and decreased need and amount of people working on farms

90

what did the induct revo have to do with jobs

it created more especially for immigrants

91

why was the erie canal important

people and goods could travel between the atlantic ocean and the great lakes easily. therefore increased the rate of settlement in the great lakes region.

92

what impact did the adams onus treaty have

fixed the boundary of the louisiana purchase

93

what was the impact of denominations

it classified religious people as well as caused issues because of different opinions of each group clashing with each other

94

what impact did the mcculoch vs maryland case have

it said that the powers of the federal government were greater than those spelled out in the constitution.

95

what did labor unions do

stuck up for workers but also showed people would fight their employers if necessary

96

what was the impact of secede

states could leave when they wanted to or threaten to try and get their way

97

what was the impact of the indian removal act

they found gold on the land and wanted it so they moved them, they told them they had good land for them and tricked them. people were fighting each other

98

what happened that caused the big riot in the indian removal

the court ruled that georgia could not tell the indians what to do.

99

what did president jackson do when the court said he could not remove the indians

he got the US army and the trail of tears happened

100

what did the free enterprise system do

encouraged the creation of new industries, jobs, and wealth

101

how did industrialization impact the economy

it helped them crate more jobs and produce products quickly

102

first part of the monroe doctrine

would not get involved in internal affairs of european countries

103

2nd part of monroe doctrine

us recognized the existing colonies in the western hemisphere and wouldn't bother them

104

3rd part of the monroe doctrine

US would not permit any further colonization of the western hemisphere

105

4th part of the monroe doctrine

any attempt to control any nation in the western hemisphere by a european power would be a hostile action towards the US

106

effect of segregatin

blacks and indians and indians put in less superior schools and were at a disadvantage

107

effect of emancipation

desiring to free slaves many people started movements and did things to stop the slate trade

108

why did utopian societies not work

people will naturally have different views

109

why was suffrage important

it allowed women to vote and it was one of the things that started the hard push by women to have basic rights and be allowed to participate in society. it was a big step in equal rights

110

how did the temperance movement impact on society

states such as maine became dry states in order to stop alcohol consumption. wanted to do this so people could make better choices.

111

abolitionist mvoement impact

put slavery and the horrors of it on the map. got people to want to see change

112

abolitionist movement leaders

david walker, william lloyd garrison, frederick douglass, sojourner truth

113

who started seneca falls convention

lizabeth cady stanton and lucritia mott

114

david walker did what

books in sailors clothes

115

william lloyd garrison did what

newspaper called liberater largely supported by free blacks.

116

frederick douglass

former slave who went around speaking about the horros of slavery, attacked guy and hurt him

117

gag rule

said there could be no antislavery petitions for the next eight years

118

how were presidios importnt

they established the land of the spaish and protected them . they were places were the apsnih could stay

119

annex importance

texas annexed on to us where as we would now have interest i finding other land

120

great plains importance

many trades were done here because of all the native americans living here. people went across these plains to expand westward

121

texas war for independence importance

US got texas, new mexico, and california from mexico

122

boom town importance

towns that experienced rapid growth fro the gold rush

123

santa fe trail importance

indpendence missouri and santa fe new mexico, way people could get to the pacific areas was through this path

124

manifest destiny importance

US believed they should get land so they went into battle and did whatever to get it

125

gadsen purchase

got arizona for 10 million dn gave space for the southern transcontinental railroad.

126

fugitive slave act importance

this caused any run aways to have to go back to their owners because they were technically their property. made it hard to escape

127

nativism importance

gave the rights to the people born in country like it should

128

states' rights importance

states could leave if they did not like what the government was doing for example the civil war

129

kansas nebraska act

gave people popular sovereignty vote and helped sway voters into votingf for douglass. basically asking to repeal the missouri compromise or 36 30 line

130

border states importance

if they left it could change the balance of power as well as leave washingotn vulnerable for attack, delaware, maryland, kentucky, missouri

131

prejudice importance

basis of slavery and everything, acting bad towards people

132

scott vs sandford importance

ruled that th emissouri compromise was unconstitutional and that slaves were the properties of their owners

133

copperhead importance.

tried to get people to not join the draft and say that republican policies would hurt them and bring tons of freed slaves

134

martial law importance

allows some laws to be ignored during war time such writ of habeas corpus

135

thirteenth amendment importance

this was the amendment that got rid of slavery

136

emancipation proclamation importance

showed the end was in sight for war by declaring the slaves in free to start jan 1 1863

137

war of attrition importance

how south tired to fight hoping north would lose heart bc they were discouraged, aka a defensive war