Flashcards in Chapter 6 - the heart and lungs at work Deck (78)
red blood cells
single blood cell
what is another name for a red blood cell
what is the primary function of red blood cells?
to transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and remove carbon dioxide from the body
what makes red blood cells able to function and transport oxygen
what makes hemoglobin red
iron is imbedded in the heme molecule
what are 2 other components of blood (other than red blood cells)?
white blood cells and clear fluid plasma
red blood cells make up about 45% of blood and this volume is called ______
new red blood cells or reticulocytes are produced where?
in the bone marrow
a circulating hormone that is the principal factor that stimulates red blood cell formation
EPO is secreted in response to what?
in response to low oxygen levels (as when one goes to high altitude) and also in response to exercise, thus increasing the percentage of new red blood cells in the body
do new, or old red blood cells contain more hemoglobin and thus carry greater amounts of oxygen?
new contain more hemoglobin and thus carry greater amount of oxygen
what has an effect on EPO production which in turn generates a high production of red blood cells?
the amount of oxygen that is consumed by the body due to aerobic metabolism
What happens to O2 uptake in relation to the amount of energy that is required to perform an activity
the measure of the volume of oxygen that is consumed in a given amount of time (usually a minute) per Kg of body weight (ml/kg/min)
a measure used to evaluate the maximal volume of oxygen that can be supplied to and consumed by the body
what is the primary role of the respiratory system?
1) deliver oxygenated air to the blood
2) remove carbon dioxide from blood, a by-product of metabolism
what 3 things does the respiratory system include?
1) the lungs
2) several passageways leading from outside to the lungs
3) muscles that move air into and out of the lungs
what are the 3 meanings for the term respiration?
1) ventilation (breathing)
2) gas exchange (occurs between the air and blood in the lungs and between the blood and other tissues of the body)
3) oxygen utilization by the tissues for cellular respiration
where are the lungs located?
within the thoracic cavity/chest
are the lungs symmetrical or asymmetrical?
asymmetrical. the right lung is larger than the left lung because the heart takes up more space on the left side
what 2 functional zones are the air passages of the respiratory system divided into?
1) the conduction zone
2) the respiratory zone
The conduction zone
the set of anatomical structures in which air passes before reaching the respiratory zone
what 2 places does air enter through? what happens once air enters?
the nose and the mouth. air is then filtered, humidified, and adjusted to body temperature in the trachea
the trachea branches into the right and left ______
the right and left bronchii enter the lung and continue to branch into smaller and smaller tubes called ________ and finally the terminal bronchioles
the whole system looks similar to an upside-down tree that it is commonly called _______
the respiration zone
region where gas exchange occurs