Chapter 6 - the heart and lungs at work Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - the heart and lungs at work Deck (78)
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31

red blood cells

single blood cell

32

what is another name for a red blood cell

erythrocyte

33

what is the primary function of red blood cells?

to transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and remove carbon dioxide from the body

34

Hemoglobin

what makes red blood cells able to function and transport oxygen

35

what makes hemoglobin red

iron is imbedded in the heme molecule

36

what are 2 other components of blood (other than red blood cells)?

white blood cells and clear fluid plasma

37

red blood cells make up about 45% of blood and this volume is called ______

hematocrit

38

new red blood cells or reticulocytes are produced where?

in the bone marrow

39

erythropoietin (EPO)

a circulating hormone that is the principal factor that stimulates red blood cell formation

40

EPO is secreted in response to what?

in response to low oxygen levels (as when one goes to high altitude) and also in response to exercise, thus increasing the percentage of new red blood cells in the body

41

do new, or old red blood cells contain more hemoglobin and thus carry greater amounts of oxygen?

new contain more hemoglobin and thus carry greater amount of oxygen

42

what has an effect on EPO production which in turn generates a high production of red blood cells?

High altitude

43

O2 Uptake

the amount of oxygen that is consumed by the body due to aerobic metabolism

44

What happens to O2 uptake in relation to the amount of energy that is required to perform an activity

increases

45

(VO2)

the measure of the volume of oxygen that is consumed in a given amount of time (usually a minute) per Kg of body weight (ml/kg/min)

46

(VO2 Max)

a measure used to evaluate the maximal volume of oxygen that can be supplied to and consumed by the body

47

what is the primary role of the respiratory system?

1) deliver oxygenated air to the blood
2) remove carbon dioxide from blood, a by-product of metabolism

48

what 3 things does the respiratory system include?

1) the lungs
2) several passageways leading from outside to the lungs
3) muscles that move air into and out of the lungs

49

what are the 3 meanings for the term respiration?

1) ventilation (breathing)
2) gas exchange (occurs between the air and blood in the lungs and between the blood and other tissues of the body)
3) oxygen utilization by the tissues for cellular respiration

50

where are the lungs located?

within the thoracic cavity/chest

51

are the lungs symmetrical or asymmetrical?

asymmetrical. the right lung is larger than the left lung because the heart takes up more space on the left side

52

what 2 functional zones are the air passages of the respiratory system divided into?

1) the conduction zone
2) the respiratory zone

53

The conduction zone

the set of anatomical structures in which air passes before reaching the respiratory zone

54

what 2 places does air enter through? what happens once air enters?

the nose and the mouth. air is then filtered, humidified, and adjusted to body temperature in the trachea

55

trachea

windpipe

56

the trachea branches into the right and left ______

bronchii

57

the right and left bronchii enter the lung and continue to branch into smaller and smaller tubes called ________ and finally the terminal bronchioles

bronchioles

58

the whole system looks similar to an upside-down tree that it is commonly called _______

respiration tree

59

the respiration zone

region where gas exchange occurs

60

alveoli

the functional units of the lungs - tiny air sacs