Chapter 6 - the heart and lungs at work Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - the heart and lungs at work Deck (78)
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61

alveoli are clustered in bunches like grapes, wit a common opening into an alveolar duct called an ___________

alveolar sac

62

the muscles surrounding the thoracic cavity which result in size change include?

Diaphragm, external intercostal muscles (expiration) and internal intercostal muscles (inspiration)

63

what happens when the diaphragm contracts

it allows blood to get into the lower extremities

64

what effect does doing exercises that work where diaphragm goes down?

improves efficiency of the heart and lungs

65

Cardiac Output

increase in heart size is one of the benefits that may arise as a result of endurance training

66

what do a larger atria and ventricles allow for?

allow for a greater volume of blood to be pumped each time the heart beats

67

what does the increased thickness of the walls of the heart (cardiac muscle) allow for?

allow for increased contractility (rate of contraction)

68

atria

collecting chambers of the heart

69

capillary supply

increased capillarization is another benefit that may arise as a result of endurance training

70

increased capillarization allows for:

1) a greater surface area and reduced distance between the blood and the surrounding tissues
2) increasing diffusion capacity of oxygen and carbon dioxide
3) easing transport of nutrients to cells

71

blood volume

increase in total blood volume along with the number and total volume of red blood cells

72

how is the increase in total blood volume along with the number and total volume of red blood cells done?

through stimulation of erythropoiesis in the bone marrow

73

erythropoiesis

formation of new red blood cells

74

why does ventilation increase with exercise?

in order to meet the increased demand of gas exchange

75

during exercise, ventilation can increase from 6L/minute at rest to over ___L/minute during maximal exercise and to more than 200L/minute during maximal voluntary breathing

150L/minute

76

true or false: with exercise/endurance, the lungs become more inefficient in gas exchange

false: with exercise/endurance, the lungs become more efficient in gas exchange

77

oxygen extraction

similar to ventilation in that the increased air flow allows for more gas exchange

78

bohr effect

when increased body temperature promotes oxygen extraction