Flashcards in Cities & Culture, 1865-1900 Deck (30):
What three things transformed American society in the 19th century?
Industrialization, Immigration, Urbanization
Name some "pushes" (negative factors) for the growth of immigration.
Poverty, Overcrowding, Joblessness, Religious Persecution
Name some "pulls" (positive factors) for the growth of immigration.
Political and Religious freedoms & Economic Opportunities in America
Through the 1880s, a majority of immigrants came from Northwestern Europe: British Isles, Germany, and Scandinavia. Most of these immigrants were Protestant and spoke English. What were these immigrants labeled?
Beginning in the 1880s, a majority of immigrants came from Southeastern Europe: Italians, Greeks, Croats, Slovaks, Poles, and Russians. Most of these immigrants were poor and illiterate peasants, unaccustomed to democratic traditions, and were largely Roman Catholic and Jewish. What were these immigrants labeled?
This is the term given to immigrants who worked temporarily in America to earn some money and then return to their native lands.
"Birds of Passage"
This law was an attempt to restrict a specific kind of immigration into the United States.
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
This was the main immigration center in New York where new immigrants had to pass rigorous medical and document exams and pay an entry tax.
Ellis Island (New York)
This was the main immigration center on the West coast in San Francisco.
Which three groups were supporters of immigration restrictions?
1.Unions feared job competition.
2.Nativists were prejudice against Catholics.
3.Social Darwinists viewed them as inferiors.
Nativists favored the interests of native-born people over the interests of immigrants. They formed this new political party in which they were hostile toward Irish and German Catholic immigrants.
This term is used to describe the population shifting from rural to urban because of economic opportunities in the cities. This also happened simultaneously with industrialization.
What group of people moved into overcrowded, unsanitary, and crime-ridden tenement houses in the cities. They created distinct ethnic neighborhoods to maintain their language, culture, church or temple.
These were communities outside of the cities were upper and middle class Americans chose to live. Frederick Law Olmsted designed this community.
Political parties in major cities came under the control of groups of politicians known as what?
Political Machines & Political Boss
What made a political boss so powerful?
Gave out orders and handed out government jobs to supporters.
Political machines provided help and services to which group of people in order to stay in power?
Political machines coordinated the needs of business, immigrants, and the underprivileged. They were also greedy stealing millions from taxpayers through graft (bribery) and fraud. What is the best example of this corruption?
Tammany Hall (New York City) & Boss Tweed
Henry George wrote this book which was critical of laissez-faire economics. He showed the inequalities in wealth caused by industrialization.
Henry George - Progress and Poverty
Edward Bellamy wrote this book where he envisioned a future in which a cooperative society had eliminated poverty, greed, and crime.
Edward Bellamy - Looking Backward
Young well-educated women were concerned about the lives of the poor. This woman started settlement houses that taught English to immigrants, provided early childhood education, and established theaters and music schools.
Jane Addams - Hull House
Walter Rauschenbusch was a Protestant clergyman who spoke about the cause of social justice for the poor. Apply Christian principles to social problems. Salvation Army provided basic necessities to the homeless while preaching the Christian gospel.
Social Gospel Movement
Where did the Women's suffrage movement begin?
Seneca Falls (1848)
These two women started the National American Women Suffrage Association (NAWSA).
Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony
The Temperance Movement and the Anti-saloon League fought for what?
Prohibition (banning alcohol)
Mark Twain wrote this book where he revealed the greed, violence, and racism in American society.
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
William Dean Howells wrote this book where he showed the problems of industrialization and unequal wealth.
A Hazard of New Fortunes
Name two books that brutal urban environment could destroy the lives of young people.
1.Stephen Crane - Maggie: A Girl of the Streets.
2.Theodore Dreiser - Sister Carrie
These painters painted scenes of everyday life in poor urban neighborhoods.
Ashcan School painters