Flashcards in Gilded Age, 1877-1900 Deck (55):
Approximately, what years did the Gilded Age occur?
During the 1860s and 1870s, the government had enacted an ambitious reform program where the federal government played a major role in American society. What are the names of the two eras that took place during this time period?
Civil War (1861-1865)
After the Compromise of 1877 what happened to the national government?
Settled into an era of stalemate
Why is the time period between 1877-1900 referenced as the Gilded Age?
Mark Twain described the superficial glitter and how glamour hid corruption. There was grinding poverty in the time of incredible wealth and political corruption.
Presidents during the Gilded Age ignored the problems arising from the growth of industry and cities. This idea of "do-little" government came from what two beliefs?
This was the first attempt to unionize all workers in all states in 1866.
National Labor Union (1866)
In 1867, these farmers began to organize to fight back against railroad companies.
Grange Movement (1867)
In 1868, Andrew Carnegie founded this company.
U.S. Steel (1868)
In 1869, this project was completed which connected the Midwest to the West.
Transcontinental Railroad (1869)
In 1869, this secret organization promoted that workers own the railroads and industries. (Socialism)
Knight of Labor (1869)
In 1870, John D. Rockefeller founded this company.
Standard Oil Company (1870)
In 1872, this construction company was involved in a scandal where they overcharged the government for jobs and made huge profits while also bribing government officials.
Credit Mobilier (1872)
In 1876, this organization was similar to the Grange movement and wanted to pass Granger laws to regulate the rates railroad companies were charging.
Farmers' Alliance (1876)
Who became the 19th president of the U.S. with the Compromise of 1877?
Pres. Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1881)
What officially ended in 1877 when Hayes withdrew the last of the federal troops from the South?
This court case in 1877 ruled that states can regulate businesses such as railroads.
Munn v. Illinois (1877)
In 1878, supporters of paper money (greenbacks) wanted to expand the money supply. They formed which party?
Greenback Party (1878)
In 1878, Congress coined a limited number of silver with this act. Farmers, debtors, and miners wanted unlimited coinage of silver.
Bland-Allison Act (1878)
Who became the 20th president of the U.S. but would be assassinated in the same year?
Pres. James A Garfield (1881)
Who became the 21st president after President Garfield was assassinated?
Pres. Chester A. Arthur (1881-1885)
In 1881, this act was passed so that applicants for federal jobs would be selected on the basis of their scores on a competitive examination, which ended the spoils system.
Pendleton Civil Service Act (1881)
This college was founded by Booker T. Washington in 1881?
In 1881, Helen Hunt Jackson wrote this book that covered the mistreatment of Native Americans by the American government.
A Century of Dishonor (1881)
In 1882, this act prohibited Chinese immigration to the United States.
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
Who became the 22nd president of the United States and would be the only president to win again after a loss.
Pres. Grover Cleveland (1885-1889)
In 1886, the American Federation of Labor was founded by this individual? The AFL was only for skilled workers.
In 1886, Congress passed this act that allowed them to regulate railroad and private businesses.
Interstate Commerce Act (1886)
In 1887, this was the first federal commission passed by the Congress to regulate railroad rates.
Interstate Commerce Commission (1887)
In 1887, this act allowed the government to divide up tribal land and grant citizenship to Indians who stayed for 25 years.
Dawes Severalty Act (1887)
In 1889, this was founded by Jane Addams where help was provided for the urban poor.
Hull House (Settlement Houses) (1889)
Who became the 23rd president of the U.S.?
Pres. Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893)
In 1890, this federal law opposed monopolies by prohibiting any contract, trust, or conspiracy in restraint of trade or commerce.
Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)
In 1890, the McKinley Tariff Act did what?
Raised tariffs to protect American industries
In 1890, this organization was founded by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony?
North American Women's Suffrage Association (NAWSA) (1890)
In 1890, this horrific event led to the end of the Indian wars when 200 Indians were murdered.
Massacre at Wounded Knee (1890)
In 1892, this violent strike happened at a Carnegie steel plant where guards and scabs were used to defeat the workers.
Homestead Strike (1892)
Name four reasons that led to agrarian discontent and gave rise to the Populist Movement.
1.Railroads exploited farmers.
2.Big business used high tariffs.
4.Corporations charged high prices.
In 1892, farmers met in Omaha, Nebraska to unite discontented white and black farmers to improve economic conditions. Similar to the Ocala Platform in Florida, they attacked laissez-faire capitalism. What party was formed at this meeting?
Populist Party (People's Party) (1892)
What were some of the demands of the Populists in their Omaha Platform?
1.Direct election of U.S. senators.
2.Initiatives and Referendums, where voters place laws on the ballot.
3.Unlimited coinage of silver. (Bimetallism)
4.Graduated income tax.
5.Public ownership of railroads.
6.Low interest loans to farmers.
7.8-hour day for industrial workers.
What were some reasons for Populist failure?
1.Western and Southern farmers disagreed.
2.Racism prevented white and blacks uniting.
3.Discovery of more gold.
4.Populist joined with the Democratic Party.
5.William Jennings Bryan lost to William Mckinley
Who became the 24th president of the U.S. and was the only president to win again after a loss.
Pres. Grover Cleveland (1893-1897)
What were the reasons why the Panic of 1893 occurred?
Stock market crashed due to over speculation and dozens of railroads went bankrupt because of overbuilding
In 1877, this was one of the worst outbreaks of labor violence. Pres. Hayes used troops to end the railroad worker union violence.
Great Railroad Strike (1877)
In 1886, this violent labor protest happened in Chicago when an anarchist threw a bomb at police officers.
Haymarket Bombing (1886)
In 1893, this act was repealed. The government stopped coining silver, which angered many Americans.
Sherman Purchase Act (Repealed) (1893)
In 1894, this individual led a march to Washington of thousands of unemployed workers and demanded the government to spend $500 million on programs to create jobs.
Jacob A. Coxey - Coxey's Army (Populist)
In 1894, this labor strike was crushed when Pres. Cleveland sent in troops. This was a strike of workers who built train cars.
Pullman Strike (1894)
In 1895, this speech given by Booker T. Washington said that blacks had to earn their rights through economic opportunities. W.E.B. Du Bois rejected this perspective.
Atlanta Compromise Speech (1895)
This court case allowed "separate but equal."
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
In 1896, William Jennings Bryan gave this speech where the demanded the increased coinage of silver. The Populists merged with the Democrats and supported Bryan for president.
"Cross of Gold" Speech (1896)
Who won the election of 1896 between the Republican William McKinley and the Democrat William Jennings Bryan? This individual became the 25th president of the U.S.
Pres. William McKinley (1897-1901)
In 1900, this act was passed, which made gold the standard unit of value in the U.S.
Gold Standard Act (1900)
In 1900, this woman led the National American Women Suffrage Association. This group combined with Stanton's and Anthony's previous organization.
Carrie Chapman Catt
In 1901, President McKinley was assassinated. Who became the 26th president of the U.S.?
Pres. Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1901)