Econ. Transformation, 1790-1860 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Econ. Transformation, 1790-1860 Deck (40):
1

This British immigrant built the first U.S. factory in 1791 and became known as the "Father of the Factory System."

Samuel Slater

2

This road stimulated the construction of other privately built toll roads that by the mid-1820s connected most of the country's major cities.

Lancaster Turnpike (road)

3

This paved highway and major route west was built with federal and state money.

National (Cumberland) Road

4

This canal in New York linked the economies of western farms and eastern cities. Inspired to build canals to join together the major lakes and rivers.

Erie Canal

5

This individual developed the first steamboat in 1807, the Clermont.

Robert Fulton

6

This new transportation system boomed in the late 1820s, which small western towns expanded into commercial centers of the national economy.

Railroads

7

This individual invented the cotton gin and interchangeable parts, which became the basis for mass production methods.

Elie Whitney

8

Elias Howe invented this new machine in 1846, which became a laborsaving device for women.

Sewing machine

9

In the communication field, Samuel F.B. Morse in 1844 was the first to send a message through what machine?

Telegraph

10

Corporations could raise capital (money) by selling shares of what in a company?

Stock

11

Individuals could invest their money in what, which led to the building of factories, canals, and railroads for profits.

Corporations

12

Manufacturing in the United States led to the growth of which two industries?

Banking and Insurance

13

This was the name of the system in Lowell, Massachusetts that recruited young unmarried farms girls to work in textile (cloth) mills.

Lowell System & Lowell Girls

14

Women worked for low wages in horrible conditions and factories also made use of what other kind of labor?

Child labor

15

Long hours, low pay, and poor working conditions led to widespread discontent among factory workers.These organizations of workers in the early 1790s grew rapidly with the development of the factory system.

Unions (Trade Unions or Craft Unions)

16

Due to Eli Whitney's cotton gin, cotton became the most profitable cash crop in which region of the United States?

South

17

The cotton gin allowed Southerners to increase their profits greatly. Where did Southern farmers begin to invest their money in huge sums?

Expansion of Slavery (Slaves)

18

This term refers to the concept that farmers fed the workers in the cities, who in turn provided farm families with an array of mass-produced consumer goods.

Market Revolution

19

What term is used to describe one's loyalty to a particular region?

Sectionalism

20

Northern states were bound together by which two economic necessities?

Improved transportation and expansion of manufacturing

21

Low pay, long hours, and unsafe working conditions caused unions to organize. Which Supreme Court case ruled that unions had the right to negotiate?

Commonwealth v. Hunt

22

This term refers to the rapid growth of cities that led to crowded housing, poor sanitation, infectious diseases, and high rates of crime.

Urbanization

23

What did John Deere invent?

Steel plow

24

What did Cyrus McCormick invent?

Mechanical reaper

25

From the founding of the country to the surge of immigration between 1830-1860, where did most immigrants come from?

Northwestern Europe

26

Name four reasons why immigrants came to the United States?

1.Inexpensive ocean transportation
2.Famines and revolutions in Europe
3.America has economic opportunities
4.America offers political freedom

27

What two benefits did immigrants provide for U.S. businesses?

Immigrants provided cheap labor and increased demand for consumer goods

28

Half our early immigrants came from which country? This country had a potato famine in the 1840s. These people also faced discrimination in America because of their Roman Catholic religion.

Ireland or the Irish

29

Germans were another immigrant group that came to America. They were skilled farmers and artisans. They also were staunch opponents of what?

Slavery

30

The flood of immigrants in the U.S. caused resentment among Americans. Furthermore, American Protestants distrusted Catholics, which led to which antiforeign party?

Supreme Order of the Star-Spangled Banner, which later became the Know-Nothing Party

31

What is the term that is used to describe anti-immigrant Americans?

Nativists

32

What became king in the South during the industrial revolution in the United States?

King Cotton

33

What is the term given to describe America before the Civil War?

Antebellum

34

Southern slavery earned what nickname in the North whenever it was being discussed?

The "Peculiar Institution"

35

Which African slave planned a revolt in South Carolina in 1822. He would be captured and later executed.

Denmark Vesey

36

Which African slave planned a revolt in Virginia in 1831. 60 whites were killed and Southerners blamed The Liberator (antislavery newspaper) for the revolt.

Nat Turner

37

The Denmark Vesey and Nat Turner slave revolts drove southern states to further tighten what?

Strict slave codes

38

What four groups made up white society before the industrial revolution became widespread throughout the Northeast?

1.Aristocracy (wealthy planters)
2.Farmers (fewer than 20 slaves)
3.Poor Whites (no slaves)
4.Mountain people (disliked slaves)

39

These individuals were pushed further and further west as white settlers encroached on their original homelands.

Native Americans

40

What term is used to describe the western territories that settlers began to occupy. These western territories offered new opportunities and land.

The Frontier