Eisenhower Years, 1953-1961 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Eisenhower Years, 1953-1961 Deck (55):
1

Who became the 34th president of the U.S., was a former 5 Star General, and was president throughout the 1950s?

Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961)

2

What popular image does the 1950s have in American history? Americans experienced the highest standard of living in the world, but the Cold War and the threat of nuclear destruction loomed in the background.

"Happy Days"

3

In 1953, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles criticized Truman's containment policy and suggested to push the Soviets to the brink of war. What was this policy known as?

Brinkmanship

4

In 1953, this secretive government agency overthrew the leader of Iran and put in a new Shah (monarch) of Iran. The Shah would rule as a brutal autocrat.

CIA (Central Intelligence Agency)

5

In 1954, this secretive government agency overthrew the government of Guatemala, because their leftist government threatened American business interests.

CIA (Central Intelligence Agency)

6

In 1953, Stalin dies and this new soviet dictator took his place.

Nikita Khrushchev

7

In 1954, SEATO was created to prevent Southeast Asia from falling to Communism. What is SEATO?

Asian Alliance (Southeast Asia Treaty Organization)

8

In 1954, the French loose control of this territory after Ho Chi Minh led a Communist force to overthrow French rule.

Vietnam (Indochina)

9

In 1954, at this conference the French gave up Indochina, which became Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam. Vietnam was also divided at the 17th parallel.

Geneva Conference

10

This is a theory that was developed during the 1950s, in that if South Vietnam falls to Communism, one nation after another in Southeast Asia would also fall to Communism.

Domino Theory (1957)

11

In 1955, this was an military alliance between the USSR and Eastern European statellite nations to unite and counter NATO.

Warsaw Pact (1955)

12

In 1956, this crisis happened in Egypt where Britain, France, and Israel invaded. Eisenhower was furious and these countries withdrew from this region.

Suez Crisis (1956)

13

In 1956, this act allowed for the construction of 42,000 miles of federal roads linking all the nation's major cities. This sparked the growth of suburbia.

Interstate Highway Act (1956)

14

In 1956, this was an attempted revolt against Communist rule in an Eastern European nation. Khrushchev sent in Soviet tanks to crush this rebellion. Eisenhower did nothing for fear of staring another war.

Hungarian Revolution (1956)

15

In 1956, the U.S. puts this unpopular anti-communist dictator in power in South Vietnam. He will later be assassinated by his own supporters.

Ngo Dinh Diem

16

In 1957, this doctrine extended the Truman Doctrine to the Middle East. Pledged economic and military aid to any Middle Eastern country threatened by Communism.

Eisenhower Doctrine (1957)

17

In 1957, this shocked the U.S. and surprised the world when the Soviets launched the first satellite.

Sputnik

18

In 1958, the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) did what?

Gave millions in federal money to schools for science, math, and foreign language.

19

In 1958, this government agency was created for the purpose to build missiles and explore outer space.

NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)

20

In 1958, there was a Second Berlin Crisis, where Khrushchev threatened the U.S. to pull its troops from West Berlin. After a meeting with Eisenhower, the crisis was over. What famous quote did Khrushchev give about capitalism during this crisis?

"We will bury capitalism" - Nikita Khrushchev

21

In 1959, this individual overthrew the U.S. supported Cuban dictator. He then nationalized American owned businesses and properties in Cuba. Communism was now only 90 miles away from the U.S.

Fidel Castro (Cuban Revolution 1959)

22

In 1960, this incident led to increased tensions between the U.S. and USSR when an American spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union.

U-2 Incident (Gary Powers - pilot)

23

In 1960, the National Liberation Front is formed in South Vietnam. From this group come the Viet Cong. Who are the Viet Cong?

South Vietnamese Communists

24

In 1947, this baseball player broke the color line by being hired by the Brooklyn Dodgers as the first African American to play on a major league team.

Jackie Robinson

25

In 1948, President Harry S. Truman integrated what government institution?

Military (armed forces)

26

List some problems that African Americans faced in the South in the 1950s.

1.Segregation in public places.
2.Poll taxes, literacy tests, granfather clauses.
3.Intimidation by the KKK

27

In 1954, the Supreme Court ruled in this court case that segregation of black children in public schools was unconstitutional. It was determined that the "equal protection of the laws" in the 14th Amendment was being violated.

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954)

28

What previous court case did Brown v. Board of Education overturn?

Plessy v. Ferguson = "separate but eqaul" ruling

29

In 1955, Rosa Parks sat in the front of a bus and was arrested for violating segregation law. Which young civil rights leader started the Montgomery Bus Boycott in Alabama.

Martin Luther King, Jr.

30

What was Martin Luther King, Jr.'s philosophy on protesting for civil rights?

Nonviolent Protest

31

In 1956, Governor Faubus of Arkansas used the National Guard to prevent nine African American students from entering this high school. Eisenhower sent in federal troops to protect the black students.

Little Rock Central High School
(Little Rock Nine)

32

In 1957, the Civil Rights Commission was created to protect the voting rights of who?

African Americans

33

In 1957, Martin Luther King Jr. formed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), which organized ministers and churches to get behind what movement?

Civil Rights

34

In 1960, this movement started when college students in Greensboro, North Carolina began to sit-in at segregated lunch counters to challenge Jim Crow laws. Many of them were arrested.

Sit-In Movement (1960)

35

SNCC was formed in 1960 to keep the sit-in movement organized. What does SNCC stand for?

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committe

36

What is the term that is used to describe the 1950s, in which everyone followed traditional views. Also, houses looked the same, people drove similar cars, watched the same shows, wore same clothes.

Conformity

37

What is the term that could describe the 1920s and the 1950s. Americans earned money and wanted to spend it on automobiles and new appliances.

Consumerism

38

What became widely used in the 1950s among Americans that allowed them to purchase more goods?

Credit Cards

39

What became the center of family life in millions of homes during the 1950s. This spurred the use of advertising to sell products.

Television

40

This term describes the movement of middle-class American moving out of the cities into these areas during the 1950s.

Suburbia (Suburbs)

41

During the 1950s, in corporate America men dressed in similar business suits. William Whyte wrote this book that documented the loss of individuality.

The Organization Man

42

Which two powerful unions merged in 1955, creating one extremely powerful union.

AFL and CIO

43

What was the typical woman's role during the 1950s?

Homemaker

44

What does non-conformity mean?

Against traditional values

45

This non-conformist author, David Riseman wrote this book which criticized the conformity of individuals.

The Lonely Crowd

46

This non-conformist author, J.D. Salinger wrote this book that depicted the "phoniness" as viewed by a troubled teenager.

The Catcher in the Rye

47

This non-conformist author, Joseph Heller wrote this book where he satirized the stupidity of the military and war.

Catch-22

48

During the 1950s, teenagers fell in love with rock n' roll music. What individual popularized rock n' roll and became known as The King?

Elvis Presley

49

Name two actors that symbolized the youth rebellion in the 1950s.

James Dean - Rebel Without a Cause
Marlon Brando - The Wild One

50

What was the name given to rebellious writers and intellectuals that made up the Beat Generation of the 1950s?

Beatniks

51

Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg were two authors that best represented the Beat Generation by advocating spontaneity, use of drugs, and rebellion against societal standards. Name their famous works?

Jack Kerouac - On The Road
Allen Ginsberg - "Howl"

52

The Beatniks of the 1950s would become models for the youth rebellion of which era?

1960s

53

Martin Luther King, Jr. was inspired to use nonviolent protest from this American transcendentalist author?

Henry David Thoreau

54

Henry David Thoreau was an American transcendentalist author who would later inspire Martin Luther King, Jr. to protest nonviolently. Which famous essay did he write that influenced KIng?

Civil Disobedience

55

What did President Dwight D. Eisenhower warn Americans of in his farewell address?

Military-industrial complex