Flashcards in Union in Peril, 1848-1861 Deck (50):
The end of this war in 1848 reignited the debate about the spread of slavery into western territories.
Mexican-American War (1846-1848)
Conflicts between the North and South increased over what four issues?
This banned slavery in territories gained from the American Revolution, which began the debate over the expansion of slavery.
Northwest Ordinance (1787)
This eased tensions over the spread of slavery for 30 years, when Missouri was admitted as a slave state and Maine as a free state. This maintained the balance of power between 12 free and 12 slave states.
Missouri Compromise (1820)
After the Mexican-American war ended in 1848, this was an attempt to prohibit slavery in the new territories gained from Mexico.
Wilmot Proviso (1848)
This movement supported the Wilmot Proviso, but were not abolitionists who wanted to eliminate slavery. Accepted slavery where it already existed, but wanted to prevent it from spreading. The West should be for whites only.
Free-Soil Movement (Free-Soilers)
Which state applied for statehood in 1849 and prohibited slavery in their constitution, which enraged southerners since the Missouri Compromise line of 1820 split this state in two. John C. Calhoun discusses secession.
Who became the 13th president of the United States in 1850 because Zachary Taylor (Whig) died?
Pres. Millard Fillmore (1850-1853)
The Compromise of 1850 admitted California as a free state and allowed what in the new territories of New Mexico and Utah, which were aquired from the Mexican Cession.
What controversial law in the Compromise of 1850 did northerners dispise and southerners cheer.
Fugitive Slave Law
What did the Fugitive Slave Law state?
Northerners had to report and return runaway slaves back to the South. Fugitive slaves were also denied a jury trial.
These northern laws were passed to prevent helping southerners from pursuing and capturing runaway slaves. They were created in reaction to the Fugitive Slave Law.
Personal Liberty Laws
Which former slave led a secret organization to help slaves escape the South to the North or Canada. This was known as the Underground Railroad.
In 1850, this treaty between the U.S. and Britain was a mutal agreement to the neutrality of a future canal in Central America (Panama).
Who became the 14th president of the U.S. after Millard Fillmore?
Pres. Franklin Pierce (1853-1857)
In 1853, Commodore Matthew Perry persuaded this Asian country to sign a treaty allowing for open trade.
In 1853, the U.S. made this purchase of land from Mexico to build a southern transcontinental railroad.
Gadsden Purchase (1853)
In 1853, Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote this book which exposed the horrors of slavery and led to resistance to the Fugitive Slave Law and increased opposition to slavery. Protrayed slave owners as monstrously cruel.
Uncle Tom's Cabin (1853)
Southern reaction to Harriet Beecher Stowe's book, Uncle Tom's Cabin, was that they argued that slavery was good for slaves and used what to defend slavery?
In 1854, this was a proposal to purchase Cuba from Spain. The North called this manifesto a southern conspiracy to spread slavery. This never passed.
Ostend Manifesto (1854)
In 1854, this act created two new territories in order to build a transcontinental railroad going west. Popular sovereignty would be used to determine if a new state would enter the Union as free or slave.
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
The Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) repealed what previous compromise 30 years earlier?
Missouri Compromise (1820)
Why did the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) enrage northerners?
Permitted the expansion of slavery beyond the southern states.
What antislavery party formed after the passing of the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
What Illinois senator was the leading supporter of popular sovereignty and helped pass the Kansas-Nebraska Act in order to build a transcontinental railroad.
Senator Stephen A. Douglass
What term refers to the principle that the settlers of a given territory have the right to decide whether or not slavery will be permitted there?
The Republican Party formed in 1854 in result of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and wanted to prohibit slavery in the new territories, but accept it where it already was. What two groups made up the Republican Party?
Northerners and Free-Soilers
In 1854, the New England Emigrant Aid Company recruited Northerners to settle in which territory so they could vote for a free state?
Between 1854-1859, what nickname did Kansas earn when Northerners and Southerners flooded into the territory because of popular sovereignty, which sparked violence on both sides?
What radical abolitionist killed five proslavery settlers in Kansas?
What two rival groups in Kansas set up two opposing governments?
This constitution allowed for slavery in Kansas, but was rejected by antislavery settlers.
Le Compton Constitution (Kansas)
This new party developed in response to rising immigration from Germany and Ireland. These Nativists were extremely anti-Catholic and favored immigration restrictions and schemes to keep immigrants from voting.
Know-Nothing Party (American Party)
Name the incident in 1856 in which Preston Brooks, nephew of Andrew Butler, beat Charles Sumner over the head with a cane because Sumner verbally attacked Butler and blamed the South for the violence in Kansas.
Sumner-Brooks incident (1856)
Who became the 15th president of the U.S. and let the next president to deal with the Southern secession and the Civil War?
Pres. James Buchanan (1857-1861)
In 1857, Chief Justice Roger Taney, heard this case in which a slave sued for his freedom because this owner took him into a free territory. The court decided that slaves had no legal right to sue and slaves were property and can not be taken away by Congress.
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
The Dred Scott v. Sandford case declared what two previous acts by the Congress as unconstitutional?
Northwest Ordinance and the Missouri Compromise.
The Dred Scott decision allowed what in the North and West, which enraged Northerners?
Slavery to spread
In 1858, two individuals running for senator of Illinois had these 7 famous debates, which predominately centered on the issue of the extension of slavery into new territories.
Lincoln-Douglass debates (1858)
In 1858, Stephen Douglass simultaneously supported popular sovereignty while also explaining that slavery could be prohibited in new territories. Douglass lost support from Republicans and Democrats. What was this doctrine called?
Free Port Doctrine (1858)
In 1858, Lincoln gave this famous speech in which he said "This government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free." Republicans ran on a platform of antislavery and higher tariffs.
"A House Divided" speech
This radical abolitionist raided a federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry for the purpose of arming slaves with weapons to start a slave revolution in Virginia. He would later be tried for treason and executed.
In the election of 1860, which party split between Stephen Douglass and his support for popular sovereignty and John C. Breckenridge and his support for extending slavery and the annexation of Cuba?
Democratic Party split
Who did Republicans support in the election of 1860 and promised to exclude slavery from the West, restrict slavery from expanding, pass tariffs for industry, give free land for settlers, and promote internal improvements.
Who became the 16th president of the U.S. with absolutely no support from the South?
Pres. Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865)
Which state was the first to secede from the Union in 1860. Then Mississippi, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Texas, and Louisiana would soon follow.
The seven states that seceded from the Union in 1860 would elect Jefferson Davis as their president. What was the name of this new nation?
Confederate States of America (Confederacy)
This lame-duck president in 1860 did nothing to stop Southern secession.
Pres. James Buchanan
This compromise was the last attempt to save the Union. A constitutional amendment was proposed that the Missouri Compromise line of 36 30 would extend all the way to the Pacific. North of the line will be free states, while south of the line would be slave states. This compromise failed.
Crittenden Compromise (1860)