Flashcards in World War II, 1939-1945 Deck (60):
Who was the 32nd president of the U.S. and had to deal with the Great Depression and World WarII?
Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1945)
What best describes American foreign policy between the years of the 1920s and 1930s?
In 1932, this doctrine declared that the U.S. would not recognize territory acquired by force like the Japanese in Manchuria?
Stimson Doctrine (1932)
In 1933, this conference was apart of F.D.R.s good neighbor policy. The U.S. pledged never again to intervene in the internal affairs of a Latin American country. Repudiated the Roosevelt Corollary.
Pan-American Conference (1933)
In 1933, as apart of F.D.R.s good neighbor policy, the U.S. Congress nullified this amendment that the Cubans were forced to include in their constitution.
In 1933, the U.S. finally recognized this country after Republican presidents had refused to do so. Roosevelt argued that it would increase trade.
In 1933, F.D.R. promised to give this country its independence in 1946 because it cost millions to governor this territory.
Name three fascist/militarists that rose to power in the 1930s?
1.Benito Mussolini - Italy
2.Adolf Hitler - Germany
3.Hideki Tojo - Japan
In 1934, an isolationist group formed this committee in which they believed that it was best to stay out of foreign conflicts.
America First Committee (1934)
In 1934, this committee headed by Senator Gerald Nye investigated and found that bankers and arms manufacturers did much to influence America's entry into WWI. Strengthened the argument to stay out of European affairs.
Nye Committee (1934)
Name two acts that displayed American isolationist policies.
1.Neutrality Act of 1935, prohibited arms sales and forbid U.S. citizens to travel on ships of belligerent nations.
2.Neutrality of 1936, forbade the extension of loans and credits to belligerents.
What is the term for the idea of giving into an aggressor?
List some acts of appeasement during the 1930s.
1931-Japan invades Manchuria
1935-Italty invades Ethiopia
1936-Hitler sends troops into Rhineland
1937-Japan invades China
1938-Hitler annexes Austria
1938-Hitler is given the Sudetenland
1939-Hitler occupies Czechoslovakia
In 1938, which conference was the symbol of appeasement in which the leaders of Britain and France handed the Sudetenland over to Hitler.
Munich Conference (1938)
In 1939, Hitler broke the Munich Conference agreement by occupying this country after he promised he would not.
In 1937, F.D.R. gave this speech where he called for the "quarantine" of aggressive nations. American citizens disagreed overwhelmingly and wanted to stay out of European affairs.
Roosevelt's Quarantine Speech (1937)
In 1939, Stalin and Hitler made a promise not to attack each other for 10 years. They secretly agreed to split Poland between them. What was the name of this pact?
Nonaggression Pact (1939)
What was the final act that started World War II in 1939?
Germany invades Poland (1939)
In 1939, the U.S. attempted to loosen their isolationist polices by allowing a belligerent to buy U.S. arms if they used their own ships and paid cash. Strongly favored the British and French. What was this policy called?
"Cash and Carry" (1939)
In 1940, this deal allowed for the U.S. to trade 50 older destroyers to the British for the right to build bases on British islands.
What tradition did F.D.R. break when he won the election of 1940?
George Washington's two-term tradition
What famous quote did F.D.R. tell the American people of why we needed to supply the British and French?
"We must be the great arsenal of democracy"
In 1941, F.D.R. gave his Four Freedoms speech. What were the four freedoms that Roosevelt stated?
Freedom of speech.
Freedom of religion.
Freedom from want.
Freedom from fear.
In 1941, the U.S. moved away from its "Cash and Carry" policy and allowed the British to purchase arms on credit. What act was passed that allowed this?
Lend-Lease Act (1941)
In 1941, F.D.R. and Churchill secretly met to agree on peace objectives when the war ends. What did they agree on in their Atlantic Charter?
1.Self-determination for all people.
2.No territorial expansion.
In 1941, F.D.R. ordered the Navy to attack all German ships on sight. This policy led to an undeclared naval war against Germany.
In 1941, Japan invaded this French territory, which led the U.S. to cut off oil shipments to Japan.
French Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia)
On what date did Japan attack Pearl Harbor and officially brought the U.S. into WWII?
December 7, 1941
In 1941, Hitler breaks the Nonaggression Pact and invades which country? This invasion would give the U.S. and British a new ally in the fight against Germany.
In 1942, this was the secret code name given to the project to build the atomic bomb.
Manhattan Project (1942)
In 1940, this act was passed that allowed a draft (conscription) of men between 21 and 35 to register for the military.
Selective Service Act (1940)
In 1940, this council was created in order to rapidly convert factories over to war production.
Council for National Defense (1940)
In 1942, this board was responsible for managing war industries.
War Production Board -WPD- (1942)
In 1942, this office was responsible for controlling raw materials.
Office of War Mobilization -OWM- (1942)
In 1942, this office was responsible for regulating almost every aspect of civilians' lives by freeing prices, wages, and rationing goods such as coffee and gasoline.
Office of Price Administration -OPA- (1942)
In 1942, the Fair Employment Practices Commission forbid discrimination in defense industries, which helped which group?
Why were unions upset during World War II?
Unions were angry that their wages were frozen, while corporations made large profits.
What are three methods that the U.S. government used to finance the war?
1.Increaed the income tax.
2.Sold war bonds.
3.Revenue Act, which expanded the number of Americans who had to pay.
In 1942, this civil rights organization was formed to prevent segregation and discrimination.
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
This originally occurred during WWI and happened again during WWII when millions of blacks left the South to look for jobs in the North and West. This event also led to race riots in New York and Detroit.
What were Mexicans called when they were allowed to enter the U.S. during the harvest season.
Which riots broke out in Los Angeles, where whites and Mexican Americans battled on the streets.
Zoot Suit RIots
In which court case did the Supreme Court upheld the U.S. government's decision to place Japanese-Americans in internment camps?
Korematsu v. U.S.
During WWII, women began to fill the vacated factories jobs left by men. Women worked in shipyards and defense plants earning them this nickname. Women still got paid less than men.
"Rosie the Riveter"
This was the woman's branch of the military where many women served as nurses.
WAAC (Women's Army Auxiliary Crops)
F.D.R. is elected for a fourth time in the election of 1944. He would die three months later, making who the 33rd president of the U.S.?
Pres. Harry S. Truman (1945-1953)
In 1942, this Soviet victory turned the tide against the Germans.
In 1942, the allies had to win this battle in order to get supplies across the Atlantic. They used radar, sonar, and the convoy system.
Battle of the Atlantic (1942)
In 1942, this U.S. victory was a turning against the Japanese in the Pacific.
Battle of Midway (Island) (1942)
In 1942, this was the code name given to the allied invasion of North Africa and successful invasion of Italy.
Operation Torch (1942)
In 1944, this was the code name given to the allied invasion of Europe. France was liberated two months later.
D-Day (Normandy, France) (1944)
In 1944, this was the last German offensive.
Battle of the Bulge (1944)
On May 7, 1945 the unconditional surrender of Germany caused many in Europe to declare what?
V-E Day (Victory in Europe Day)
In 1945, the U.S. dropped two atomic bombs on which two Japanese cities?
August 6 - Hiroshima
August 9 - Nagasaki
What is the name given to the Nazi murder of 6 million Jews, which was apart of Hitler's Final Solution.
Holocaust. This led to a flood of Jewish immigration to the United States.
In 1943, this wartime conference occurred in Africa where F.D.R. and Churchill agreed to invade Sicily and would demand the unconditional surrender from the Axis powers.
Casablanca Conference (Africa) (1943)
In 1943, this wartime conference occurred in Iran where the Big Three met for the first time. F.D.R., Churchill, Stalin discuss the liberation of France.
Tehran Conference (Iran) (1943)
In 1945, the Big Three met at Yalta (Soviet Union) and there they agreed on these decisions for the outcome of WWII.
1.Germany divided into zones.
2.Stalin promised free elections in Eastern Europe, but would break his promise.
3.United Nations would be formed.
In 1945, the Big Three (Truman this time) met at this conference in Germany and decided to hold war-crime trials for Nazi leaders.
Potsdam Conference (1945)