Flashcards in Great Depression, 1929-1939 Deck (55):
Who became the 31st president of the U.S. and is later blamed for the Great Depression?
Pres. Herbert Hoover (1929-1933)
What catastrophic event occurred when millions invested in the boom market and would lose their savings. This happened on Black Tuesday, October 29, 1929?
Stock Market Crash
List some causes of the stock market crash in 1929.
1.Uneven distribution of income.
2.Stock market speculation.
3.Buying stocks on margin (credit).
4.Easy availability of credit.
5.Overproduction of consumer goods.
6.Weak farm economy.
7.LIttle government regulation.
8.U.S. raised tariffs, hurt trade.
How did President Hoover initially deal with the Great Depression?
Hoover believed prosperity would soon return and hesitated to ask Congress for legislative action on the economy.
In 1930, Hoover's first major decision to address the depression was a terrible mistake. What did he pass that made the depression worse by reducing trade for all nations?
Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act, which was a high protective tariff for U.S. businesses. Europeans retaliated with tariffs of their own.
In 1931, Hoover created this program to help farmers stabilize prices by holding surplus grain and cotton in storage. It was too little, too late.
Federal Farm Board (1931)
In 1932, Hoover created this program that was a government-owned corporation that tried to stabilize failing railroads, banks, and other businesses with emergency loans.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
In 1932, this event made matters worse for Pres. Hoover. Thousands of unemployed WWI veterans marched on Washington, D.C. to receive a bonus promised to them in 1945.
Bonus Army (Bonus March)
What nickname did people give shantytowns?
Who became the 32nd president of the United States and offered the American people a "New Deal?"
Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1945)
In 1933, the 20th Amendment was passed, which shortened the period between the election and inauguration. What nickname did this amendment earn?
Lame-duck Amendment (20th Amendment)
This was Roosevelt's wife who became the most active first lady in history. She influenced F.D.R. to support minorities and the less fortunate.
What was apart of the New Deal philosophy?
Roosevelt did not have a plan for ending the depression, but he was committed to take action and willing to experiment with political solutions to address economic problems.
What were Roosevelt's Three R's?
1.Relief for people out of work.
2.Recovery for business and the economy.
3.Reform of American economic institutions.
What term came from Roosevelt's first hundred days that every president since then has also been measured in what they accomplished?
"First Hundred Days"
In 1933, this was the first act that F.D.R. did when he ordered banks to close to prevent further banks from failing and to restore confidence in good banks.
Bank Holiday (1933)
In 1933, F.D.R. assured listeners over the radio that the reopened banks were now safe. He would give many of these chats to explain to the American people what he was trying to do.
In 1933, this amendment repealed the 18th amendment. Alcohol was now legal.
In 1933, F.D.R appointed this individual to became the first woman to hold a cabinet position.
In 1933, this New Deal program allowed the government to examine banks and reopen the ones that were judged to be in good health.
Emergency Banking Relief Act (1933)
In 1933, this New Deal program gave money to the states for building roads, bridges, dams, and other public works.
Public Works Administration -PWA- (1933)
In 1933, this New Deal program employed young men on projects on federal lands.
Civilian Conservation Corps -CCC- (1933)
In 1933, this New Deal program hired thousands of people in one of the nation's poorest regions to build dams, operate electric power plants, and control flooding. This was criticized for unfairly competing with private power companies.
Tennessee Valley Authority -TVA- (1933)
In 1933, this New Deal program attempted to guarantee reasonable profits for business and fair wages and hours for labor. Gave workers the right to organize and bargain collectively.
National Recovery Administration -NRA- (1933)
Which court case declared the National Recovery Administration (NRA) unconstitutional?
Schecter v. U.S.
In 1933, this New Deal program encouraged farmers to reduce production and government paid for every acre not farmed to raise prices. This program would later be declared unconstitutional.
Agricultural Adjustment Administration -AAA- (1933)
In 1933, this New Deal program hired laborers for temporary construction projects sponsored by the federal government.
Civil Works Administration -CWA- (1933)
In 1934, this New Deal program regulated the stock market and placed limits on the speculation that led to the Wall Street crash.
Securities and Exchange Commission -SEC- (1934)
In 1934, this act took the United States off the gold standard.
Gold Reserve Act (1934)
In 1935, this program was apart of the Second New Deal where billions of dollars were spent to provide jobs to build bridges, roads, and airports. This program also hired artists, writers, and actors.
Works Progress Administration -WPA- (1935)
In 1936, this program was apart of the Second New Deal where loans were given to small farmers.
Resettlement Administration -RA- (1936)
In 1935, this New Deal program guaranteed a worker's right to join a union and a union's right to bargain collectively.
National Labor Relations Act -Wagner Act- (1935)
In 1935, this New Deal program created a board that was empowered to enforce the Wagner Act and make sure that worker's rights were protected.
National Labor Relations Board -NLRB- (1935)
In 1935, this New Deal program gave loans to companies to supply power to rural areas.
Rural Electrification Administration -REA- (1935)
In 1935, this New Deal program created a federal insurance program based upon the automatic collection of taxes from employees and employers. Monthly payments would go to retired person over 65, disabled, and women with children.
Social Security Act (1935)
The supporters of F.D.R. were made up of the Solid South, white ethnic groups in the cities, midwestern farmers, and labor unions. African Americans also began to vote Democratic, leaving the Republican Party. What were these supporters known as?
New Deal Coalition
Liberal critics of the New Deal complained about what?
The New Deal did too much for business and too little for the unemployed
Conservative critics of the New Deal complained about what?
Many New Deal programs bordered on socialism or even communism.
Name this famous demagogue who proposed a "Share Our Wealth" program that promised a minimum income of $5,000 for every American family by taxing the wealthy.
Huey Long - The "Kingfish"
Roosevelt did not have any opportunities during his first term to appoint any Supreme Court Justices. F.D.R. was also angry that they declared some New Deal programs as unconstitutional. F.D.R. proposed a Judicial-Reogranization Bill that would allow him to appoint more justices. What did critics call this bill?
F.D.R.'s court-reorganization plan earned him what criticism from both Republicans and Democrats?
Roosevelt was trying to be a dictator
The National Industrial Recovery Act and the Wagner Act stated that what had the right to exist and could bargain collectively?
As unions grew, tensions rose between which two rival unions?
1.American Federation of Labor (AFL), which was dominated by skilled white workers.
2.Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), which wanted to organize all workers regardless of race, sec, and skill.
In 1938, this act was one of the last major reforms of the New Deal. This act provided for a minimum wage, maximum workweek of 40 hours, and child-labor restrictions of those under 16.
Fair Labor Standards Act (1938)
This economic philosophy by John Maynard Keynes promoted the idea that deficit spending was acceptable because in difficult times the government needed spend in order to initiate economic growth.
Why did New Deal reforms end in 1938?
Americans believed the economy was getting better and fears of Nazi aggression diverted attention from domestic concerns toward foreign affairs.
Describe how women dealt with the Great Depression.
1.Mothers suffered in silence.
2.Women were accused of taking jobs from men.
3.Women received lower pay than men.
In the 1930s, a severe drought ruined crops in the Great Plains, which earned the farmers and the area these names.
Dust Bowl Farmers - Dust Bowl
In 1939, John Steinbeck wrote about the hardships of dustbowl farmers as they migrated to California looking for work. What was his book called?
The Grape of Wrath (1939)
Describe some of the difficulties African Americans faced with the Great Depression.
1.Racial discrimination persisted.
2.Lynchings continued in the South.
Why did F.D.R. not support Civil Rights leaders?
F.D.R. feared he would loose the white southern Democratic vote.
Describe some of the positive effects the New Deal had on African Americans.
1.New Deal did provide some relief for African Americans.
2.Over 100 African Americans were appointed to middle-level positions in the federal government.
The Indian Reorganization Act (Wheeler-Howard) of 1934 repealed which act of 1887, which returned lands to the control of tribes and supported the preservation of Native American cultures.
Dawes Act (1887)
Describe how the Great Depression and the New Deal affected Mexican-Americans.
Discrimination in New Deal programs and competition for jobs forced thousands of Mexican-Americans to return to Mexico