Flashcards in The Federalist Era, 1789-1800 Deck (40):
Who becomes the first president under the U.S. Constitution and the New Republic in 1789?
This is the term given to the appointed chiefs/advisors of departments by the president.
This act made the Supreme Court the highest court in the U.S. and declared that Federal courts are superior to State courts.
Judiciary Act (1789)
This was the first law passed by Congress, which was designed to protect infant industries.
Tariff of 1789
In 1789, the American Revolution inspired a revolution to break out where?
France (French Revolution)
Once the French Revolution began, the U.S. continued to trade with France. Meanwhile, the British began seizing U.S. ships and doing what with American sailors?
Which founding father had a financial plan to stabilize the American economy, promote economic growth, and strengthen finances?
Name a few aspects of Alexander Hamilton's financial plan.
1.Pay off the national debt
2.Protect the nation's industries
3.Place high tariffs on imported goods
5.Create a national bank to deposit government funds and print money
Thomas Jefferson viewed Alexander Hamilton's financial plan as benefiting the rich. What kind of economy did Jefferson favor?
Congress eventually adopted which three parts of Hamilton's financial plan?
1.U.S. government will pay off the national debt and adopt the debts of the states.
2.Tariffs on imports and excise (direct) taxes on whiskey to pay for the debt.
Jefferson argued that the Constitution did not give Congress the power to create a bank. Which part of the Constitution did Hamilton argue that they could create a bank?
Elastic Clause - "necessary and proper"
Alexander Hamilton favored what kind of interpretation of the Constitution?
Thomas Jefferson favored what kind of interpretation of the Constitution?
What were the first two political parties? (Two-Party System)
Federalists led by Hamilton
Democratic-Republicans led by Jefferson
Who made up the Federalist Party?
Strong federal government supporters
Federal government over state's rights
Who made up the Democratic-Republican Party?
Southern and Western frontier states
Limited federal government
Supported state's rights
In 1791, this American institution would pay government bills, print money, collect revenues (taxes), deposit federal funds.
First Bank of the United States (U.S. Bank)
In 1793, France waged war against England and Spain. George Washington refused to get involved by making this proclamation?
Proclamation of Neutrality (1793)
Which political party supported the British against the French?
Which political party supported the French against the British?
In 1793, this French minister began to ask the American people directly to support the French cause.
Edmond Genet ("Citizen" Genet)
In 1794, poor farmers of western Pennsylvania didn't want to pay excise tax (direct tax) on whiskey, so they attacked tax collectors. Washington put down this rebellion with troops.
Whiskey Rebellion (1794)
The U.S. army defeated Indian tribes at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in Ohio. Which treaty did Indians agree to give up the Ohio Territory and also encouraged American settlement of the West?
Treaty of Greenville (1794)
In 1794, Washington sent John Jay to Britain to ask the British to stop seizing U.S. ships and impressing American sailors. This treaty also asked for the withdrawal of British troops from American forts.
Jay Treaty (1794)
The British continued to impress American sailors despite the Jay Treaty, which would eventually lead to what war?
War of 1812
This U.S. treaty with Spain settled the Florida-Georgia border and allowed for free navigation of the Mississippi River.
Pinckney Treaty (1795)
In 1796, George Washington gave his farewell address. What did he warn Americans not to do?
Don't get involved with European affairs
Don't make permanent alliances
Don't form political parties
What tradition did George Washington establish that is not stated in the Constitution?
Who won the election of 1796 between John Adams and Thomas Jefferson?
Pres. John Adams (1797-1801)
In 1797, the French began to seize American ships and three French ministers requested a bribe from the U.S. diplomats before entering into negotiations. This event almost led to war between the U.S. and France?
XYZ Affair (1797)
These acts were passed in 1798 by the John Adam's administration in an attempt to limit the power of the Democratic-Republicans.
Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)
In 1798, this act increased the residence requirement to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years. Immigrants strongly voted for the Democratic-Republicans.
Naturalization Act (1798)
This act allowed the president to deport dangerous foreigners.
The Alien Act (1798)
This act made it illegal to publish anything critical of the government or the president.
The Sedition Act (1798)
In 1798, these resolutions were written secretly by Jefferson and Madison. The resolutions stated that a state could reject an act passed by the federal government. This sets up the theory of Nullification.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
A state can declare an act of Congress as unconstitutional.
John C. Calhoun of South Carolina believed any state had the right to nullify (reject) which kind of laws?
This theory states that the federal government was formed by a compact (agreement) of the states and when the government breaks the compact, the states can nullify (reject) a federal law.
Compact Theory (State's Rights)
Which political party was in charge of the government between the years 1789-1800?
Federalist Party (Federalist Era)