Flashcards in Progressive Era, 1901-1918 Deck (50):
Industrialization, immigration, and urbanization dramatically changed American society. This reform movement developed to deal with the unresolved issues that occurred during the Gilded Age between 1877-1900.
Progressive Movement/Progressivism (1901-1918)
Who were the Progressives?
1.Use government to fix social problems.
2.Use government to regulate industries.
3.Use government to improve labor conditions.
4.Progressives were middle-class citizens.
Who were some Republican progressives?
Theodore Roosevelt & Robert La Follette
Who were some Democratic progressives?
William Jennings Bryan & Woodrow Wilson
What were some goals of the progressives?
1.Fight corruption in politics.
2.Limit the power of big business
What were some of the political reforms of the progressives?
2.Direct election of U.S. senators. (17th Amendment)
3.Initiative, influence the legislature to consider a bill.
4.Referendum, allowed citizens to vote on laws.
5.Recall, remove a corrupt politician from office.
What were some of the economic reforms of the progressives?
1.Child labor laws.
3.Pure Food and Drug Act.
What were the progressive constitutional amendments?
16th-Congress can collect income taxes.
17th-Senators elected by popular vote.
18th-Prohibition banned alcohol.
19th-Granted women the right to vote.
Who became the 26th president of the U.S. and would become the first progressive president?
Pres. Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909)
Which progressive issues did Teddy Roosevelt address?
1.Breakup trusts (monopolies).
2.Regulate unsanitary meatpacking industries.
3.Require truthful labels on products.
4.Conservation of natural resources.
Presidents in the 19th century had consistently taken the side of business in its conflict with labor. How was Teddy Roosevelt different?
Roosevelt insisted on a "Square Deal" for both labor and business.
In 1902, Roosevelt successfully intervened in this strike between miners and the mine owners?
Anthracite Coal Strike (1902)
Workers got a 10% wage increase and a 9-hour day.
In 1903, this progressive Wisconsin governor allowed citizens to choose their candidates by majority vote. This direct primary overthrew boss rule.
Gov. Robert La Follette
In 1904, Roosevelt broke up the power of powerful railroad monopolies and took action against Standard Oil and 40 other large corporations. What was this called?
Trust-busting (breakup the bad trusts and keep the good trusts)
These two acts attempted to regulate railroads.
Elkins Act (1903) - strengthened the powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission.
Hepburn Act (1906)-ICC could fix "just and reasonable" rates.
In 1905, the Industrial Workers of the World formed, which promoted violence and socialism. What was the nickname given to this group.
In 1905, W.E.B. Du Bois met with black intellectuals to discuss equal rights for blacks. Where was the meeting held and what did this movement become?
Niagara Movement (Niagara Falls, Canada)
These were early 20th century journalists who exposed illegal business practices, social injustices, and corrupt urban political bosses.
Henry Demarest Lloyd wrote this book where he attacked the practices of the Standard Oil Company and the railroads. Failed to suggest how to control these companies.
Wealth Against Commonwealth (1881)
Jacob Riis wrote this book about American industry and the poor living conditions in tenements.
How the Other Half Lives (1890)
Lincoln Steffens wrote this book which described the corrupt deals of big-city politics.
The Shame of the Cities (1904)
Theodore Dreiser wrote these books where he portrayed greedy and ruthless industrialists.
The Financier & The Titan
Ida Tarbell wrote this book that was a critical history of the Standard Oil Company.
Mother of Trusts
In 1906, Upton Sinclair wrote this book were he exposed the unsanitary conditions in meat packing industries in Chicago.
The Jungle (1906)
In 1906, this act was passed that allowed federal inspectors to visit meatpacking plants to ensure that they met minimum standards of sanitation. The Jungle helped get this act passed.
Meat Inspection Act (1906)
In 1906, this act forbade the manufacture, sale, and transportation of mislabeled foods and drugs.
Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
In 1908, Roosevelt set up this commission because he loved the wilderness and wanted to protect the environment.
National Conservation Commission
Who did Roosevelt appoint as the director of the U.S. Forest Service?
In 1908, this group was founded by W.E.B. Du Bois and the members of the Niagara Movement along with white progressives. Wanted to abolish all forms of segregation and increase educational opportunities.
NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
Who became the 27th president of the U.S. simply because Roosevelt endorsed him?
Pres. William H. Taft (1909-1913)
In 1909, the Republican party began to split between Taft & Roosevelt. This tariff was the beginning of increased tensions because it angered progressives.
Payne-Aldrich Tariff (1909)
In 1910, this controversy where Taft fired Gifford Pinchot led to the Republican Party splitting between the conservatives who followed Taft and the progressives who followed Roosevelt.
Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy (1910)
In 1911, this horrific event convinced progressives to push for reform in safety and health conditions in factories.
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire (1911)
The Socialist Party of America was founded in 1901 and called for radical reforms like public ownership of railroads, utilities, and major industries like oil and steel. Who was the founder and leader of the Socialist Party?
Eugene V. Debs
Who won the election of 1912 between Taft (Republican) Roosevelt (Bull Moose Party) and Woodrow Wilson (Democrat) to become the 28th president of the U.S?
Pres. Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921)
What was Pres. Wilson's plan called that attacked the "triple wall of privilege": tariffs, banking, and trusts.
In 1913, this tariff lowered tariff rates for the first time in over 50 years to bring consumer prices down.
Underwood Tariff (1913)
In 1913, this amendment authorized the government to collect an income tax.
16th Amendment (1913)
In 1913, this amendment allowed for the direct election of Senators. State legislatures picked them before.
17th Amendment (1913)
In 1914, this act established 12 district banks that issued dollar bills.
Federal Reserve Act (1914)
In 1914, this act strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act for breaking up monopolies.
Clayton Antitrust Act (1914)
In 1914, this regulatory agency could investigate and take action against any "unfair trade practice."
Federal Trade Commission (1914)
In 1916, this act prohibited interstate commerce shipments of products manufactured by children under 14. It was later declared unconstitutional in the court case Hammer v. Dagenhart.
Child Labor Act (1916)
In 1916, Alice Paul used more militant approach for women's suffrage by going to the streets with mass pickets, parades, and hunger strikes. Wanted a constitutional amendment granting women's suffrage. What was her group called?
National Woman's Party (1916)
In 1919, this amendment allowed for prohibition. The Volstead Act was passed to enforce the prohibition of alcohol.
18th Amendment (1919)
In 1919, this amendment granted women's suffrage.
19th Amendment (1919)
Progressives did nothing about segregation and lynching because of what two reasons?
1.They shared in the general prejudice of blacks.
2.They considered reforms that benefited everyone in society instead of just one group.
African American leaders differed on the approach of gaining civil rights. Which leader focused on economics and argued that blacks needed education and economic progress before civil rights.
Booker T. Washington
African American leaders differed on the approach of gaining civil rights. Which leader demanded equal rights for African Americans. Argued political and social rights were a must for economic independence.
W.E.B. Du Bois