Reconstruction,1865-1877 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Reconstruction,1865-1877 Deck (30):

Reconstruction officially begins in this year, which is also the same year the President Lincoln was assassinated.



What are the Reconstruction Amendments?

13th, 14th, 15th Amendments


Which amendment abolished slavery and involuntary servitude in 1865?

13th Amendment


Which amendment in 1868 made former slaves citizens and invalidated the Dred Scott decision. Also, all persons born in the U.S. were citizens and all citizens had equal protection of the law. Guaranteed civil rights.

14th Amendment


Which amendment in 1870 gave all black males suffrage. Women were still not allowed to vote.

15th Amendment


In 1863, Lincoln announced this "10 percent plan," which was a lenient plan to readmit Southern states. 10% of the voters in the South must give an oath of loyalty to the Union and rewrite their constitutions to eliminate what?

Slavery (Accept emancipation of former slaves)


Which political party dominated Congress and wanted to punish the South for their betrayal of the Union?

Radical Republicans


In 1864, this bill was much stricter than Lincoln's (10 Percent Plan) and required 50% of voters to take the oath of loyalty and did not allow former confederates to vote for the new constitution. LIncoln vetoed this bill.

Wade-Davis Bill (1864)


In 1865, this early welfare agency, provided food, shelter, and medical aid for blacks and whites. The greatest success of this agency was in education, which established 3,000 schools for freed blacks.

Freedman's Bureau (1865)


In 1866, these laws were passed by Southern legislatures to prohibit blacks from renting or buying land. This placed freedmen in working conditions similar to slavery by signing contracts. Northerners were appalled by this.

Black Codes (1866)


In 1866, which president vetoed two bills; one that increased services for the Freedmen's Bureau and the second one gave civil rights and full citizenship and equal rights to blacks. Republicans saw him as a traitor.

Pres. Andrew Johnson


Republicans passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 which protected the newly freed blacks by invalidating the Black Codes. Republicans overrode Johnson's vetoes and passed what permanent solution to protect African American's civil rights?

14th Amendment


In 1867, these acts divided the South into 5 military districts that would be run by the Union Army. All Southern governments had to ratify the 14th Amendment and protect black suffrage.

Reconstruction Acts (1867)


This act in 1867 stated that the president can not remove any appointed official without Senate consent. Radical Republicans were afraid that Johnson would remove them from his cabinet.

Tenure of Office Act (1867)


In 1868, this was the first president to be impeached because he removed a Radical Republican from his cabinet. The Senate fell one vote short to fully impeach this president.

Pres. Andrew Johnson


Which famous Union general became the 18th president of the U.S?

Pres. Ulysses S. Grant (1869-1877)


Grant and the Republicans received the votes of 500,000 blacks to earn them a victory. They realized that the voting rights of all African Americans needed to be protected. Which amendment was quickly passed to accomplish this?

15th Amendment


The Civil Rights Act of 1875 guaranteed what in public places such as hotels, railroads and theaters. This was poorly enforced and many in the North were frustrated with trying to reform the South.

Equal accommodations


This nickname was given to Northern newcomers who moved to the South during Reconstruction for political gain.



This was a nickname to label white Southern Republicans.



Who were Blanche K. Bruce and Hiram Revels?

The first two black senators


African Americans began building black communities that consisted of what?

Hundreds of black churches, schools, and colleges to train ministers and teachers.


This term describe the situation in which a landlord provided the seed and other farm supplies in return for a share (half) of the harvest.



This company exemplified the corruption that would dominate the times after the Civil War. Insiders gave stock to influential members of Congress to avoid investigation of illegal profits. Which company did this?

Credit Mobilier


This illegal activity occurred when federal revenue (tax) agents worked with the liquor industry to cheat the government of millions of taxes. Pres. Grant did not profit from this corruption, but it did tarnish his presidency.

Whiskey Ring


New York was a center of greed and corruption post Civil War. This individual helped himself and his cronies with graft. They stole $200 million from New York's taxpayers.

William "Boss" Tweed (Tweed Ring)


What term was given to Southern Confederates who slowly took control of one state government after another. They fought for state's rights, reduced taxes, reduced spending on social programs, and white supremacy.



In 1867, this white supremacy group was founded for the purpose to intimidate black and white reformers. They burned black-owned buildings and beat and murdered freedmen to keep them from exercising their voting rights.

Ku Klux Klan (KKK)


These acts of 1870 and 1871 gave power to federal authorities to stop KKK violence and to protect the civil rights of citizens in the South.

Force Acts of 1870 and 1871


Reconstruction finally ended in 1877. In this controversial election, Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican) was allowed to be president by the South, as long as Hayes promised to do what?

All federal troops were withdrawn from the South and the government would not enforce Reconstruction-era legislation. Blacks became second-class citizens and were now on their own.