Clinical Aspects of Stroke Flashcards Preview

Medicine, Year 2, Block 12 (Neurological, Neuromuscular, and MSK Diseases) > Clinical Aspects of Stroke > Flashcards

Flashcards in Clinical Aspects of Stroke Deck (19):
1

What is the definition of a stroke?

A sudden, focal neurological deficit due to a vascular lesion lasting longer than 24 hours

2

What is the definition of a Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)?

A focal deficit lasting a few seconds to less than 24 hours. There is complete recovery

3

With respect to the Central Sulcus, where is the Primary Motor cortex located?

Anterior to the Central sulcus

4

With respect to the Central Sulcus, where is the Primary Somatosensory cortex located?

Posterior to the Central sulcus

5

Where is Broca's area and Wernicke's area located in the brain?

FrOntal lobe = BrOca
PariEtal / TEmporal lobe = WErnickE

6

Describe Broca's aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia

Broca's: Expressive aphasia. Can understand but cannot produce speech

Wernicke's: Receptive aphasia. Cannot understand but can produce speech

7

What are the three types of Ischaemic stroke? Describe each of them

Thromboembolic stroke: Blot clot has developed in the brain

Embolic stroke: Blood clot has developed elsewhere and has travelled to the brain

Lacunar stroke: Small infarcts between 2 and 20mm

8

Describe what Procopagnosia is?

Inability to recognise people's faces

9

What is the most common site of Occlusion in the Circle of Willis?

Middle cerebral artery

10

In which chamber of the heart can a blood clot form which has a direct route to the brain?

Left atrium, i.e. in AF or MI due to stagnant blood

11

In which chamber of the heart can a blood clot form which has a direct route to the lungs?

Right atrium

12

In which condition might you get a paradoxical embolism where blood flows from the venous circulation to arterial circulation?

Patent Foramen Ovale

13

What is a Watershed Infarct?

Ischaemia of the brain localised to the vulnerable border of zones between tissues supplied the cerebral arteries

14

What is the ischaemic penumbra?

Zone around an ischaemic event

15

What is the acute treatment for a Cerebral infarction?

- Tissue Plasminogen activator
- Aspirin and statins

16

What are some risk factors for stroke?

Hypertension
Atrial Fibrillation
Smoking
Hypercholesterolaemia
Diabetes
Exercise
Diet

17

What is the main cause for a Haemorrhagic stroke?

Hypertension

18

Aside from hypertension, what are other causes of Haemorrhagic stroke?

- Arterio-venous malformations
- Vascular tumours
- Amyloid angiopathy

19

What is the main treatment for Haemorrhagic stroke?

Antihypertensives