Flashcards in Clinical Aspects of Stroke Deck (19):
What is the definition of a stroke?
A sudden, focal neurological deficit due to a vascular lesion lasting longer than 24 hours
What is the definition of a Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)?
A focal deficit lasting a few seconds to less than 24 hours. There is complete recovery
With respect to the Central Sulcus, where is the Primary Motor cortex located?
Anterior to the Central sulcus
With respect to the Central Sulcus, where is the Primary Somatosensory cortex located?
Posterior to the Central sulcus
Where is Broca's area and Wernicke's area located in the brain?
FrOntal lobe = BrOca
PariEtal / TEmporal lobe = WErnickE
Describe Broca's aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia
Broca's: Expressive aphasia. Can understand but cannot produce speech
Wernicke's: Receptive aphasia. Cannot understand but can produce speech
What are the three types of Ischaemic stroke? Describe each of them
Thromboembolic stroke: Blot clot has developed in the brain
Embolic stroke: Blood clot has developed elsewhere and has travelled to the brain
Lacunar stroke: Small infarcts between 2 and 20mm
Describe what Procopagnosia is?
Inability to recognise people's faces
What is the most common site of Occlusion in the Circle of Willis?
Middle cerebral artery
In which chamber of the heart can a blood clot form which has a direct route to the brain?
Left atrium, i.e. in AF or MI due to stagnant blood
In which chamber of the heart can a blood clot form which has a direct route to the lungs?
In which condition might you get a paradoxical embolism where blood flows from the venous circulation to arterial circulation?
Patent Foramen Ovale
What is a Watershed Infarct?
Ischaemia of the brain localised to the vulnerable border of zones between tissues supplied the cerebral arteries
What is the ischaemic penumbra?
Zone around an ischaemic event
What is the acute treatment for a Cerebral infarction?
- Tissue Plasminogen activator
- Aspirin and statins
What are some risk factors for stroke?
What is the main cause for a Haemorrhagic stroke?
Aside from hypertension, what are other causes of Haemorrhagic stroke?
- Arterio-venous malformations
- Vascular tumours
- Amyloid angiopathy