Testing the Cranial Nerves Flashcards Preview

Medicine, Year 2, Block 12 (Neurological, Neuromuscular, and MSK Diseases) > Testing the Cranial Nerves > Flashcards

Flashcards in Testing the Cranial Nerves Deck (33):
1

State the 12 Cranial Nerves

I: Olfactory
II: Optic
III: Oculomotor
IV: Trochlear
V: Trigeminal
VI: Abducens
VII: Facial
VIII: Vestibulocochlear
IX: Glossopharyngeal
X: Vagus
XI: Accessory
XII: Hypoglossal

2

Where is the Nuclei for each of the Cranial Nerves? (2, 2, 4, 4)

Cranial Nerves I-II: Cerebrum
Cranial Nerves III-IV: Midbrain
Cranial Nerves V-VIII: Pons
Cranial Nerves IX-XII: Medulla

3

What is the modality for the 12 Cranial Nerves?

I: Olfactory - Sensory
II: Optic - Sensory
III: Oculomotor - Motor
IV: Trochlear - Motor
V: Trigeminal - Both
VI: Abducens - Motor
VII: Facial - Both
VIII: Vestibulocochlear - Sensory
IX: Glossopharyngeal - Both
X: Vagus - Both
XI: Accessory - Motor
XII: Hypoglossal - Motor

4

Where does Cranial Nerve I, the Olfactory Nerve exit?

Cribiform Plate

5

Describe the route of Cranial Nerve I, the Olfactory Nerve

Primary neurones pass through Cribiform plate -> Synapse with mitral cells -> Olfactory tract -> Olfactory stria -> Amygdala -> Hippocampus

6

Why is smell intimately connected with emotions, memory, motivation and behaviour?

Because impulses run to the Amygdala and Hippocampus which are components of the Limbic system

7

Describe the route of Cranial Nerve II, the Optic Nerve

Eye - > Optic Nerve -> Optic Chiasm -> Optic Tract -> Lateral geniculate nucleus -> Optic radiation -> Primary visual cortex

8

Where does decussation of the Optic Nerve occur?

Optic Chiasm

9

Where is the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus located?

Thalamus

10

What is Scotomata?

Blind spots in visual fields

11

What is Hemianopia?

Decreased vision in half of visual field

12

What is Quadrantanopia?

Decreased vision in quarter of visual field

13

What test is used to assess Colour Blindness?

Ishihara Test

14

What conditions might Visual Fields assess for?

Scotomata
Hemianopia
Quadrantanopia

15

Which extrinsic eye muscle runs through the Trochlea?

Superior Oblique

16

What is the main connection between the Oculomotor, Trochlear and Abducens nerve?

Medial Longitudinal Fissure

17

What is the relevance of the Medial Longitudinal Fissure with respect to the Cranial nerves

Connection between the Oculomotor, Trochlear and Abducens nerve

18

What is the Direct and Consusual Response in the Pupillary light reflex?

Direct response = Constriction of pupil of same eye

Consensual response = Constriction of pupil of other eye

19

Ptosis is caused by a lesion in which Cranial Nerve?

Oculomotor Nerve (Cranial Nerve III)

20

What are the three branches of the Trigeminal Nerve?

Ophthalmic: V1
Maxillary: V2
Mandibular: V3

21

What is the modality of the Ophthalmic, Maxillary and Mandibular branches of the Trigeminal?

Ophthalmic: Sensory
Maxillary: Sensory
Mandibular: Both

22

Where does the Ophthalmic branch of the Trigeminal exit?

Superior Orbital Fissure

23

Where does the Maxillary branch of the Trigeminal exit?

Foramen Rotundum

24

Where does the Mandibular branch of the Trigeminal exit?

Foramen Ovale

25

What is the sensory / motor function of the Mandibular branch of the Trigeminal nerve?

Sensory: Sensation to anterior 2/3rds of tongue

Motor: Muscles of Mastication

26

What is the sensory / motor function of the Facial nerve?

Sensory: Taste to the anterior 2/3rds of tongue

Motor: Muscles of facial expression

27

What is the sensory function of the Glossopharyngeal nerve?

Sensory: Sensation and taste to the Posterior 1/3rds of the tongue

28

Where does the Vestibulocochlear nerve exit the skull?

Internal Acoustic Meatus

29

Where does Cranial nerves IX, X, XI exit the brain?

Jugular Foramen

30

Where does Cranial Nerve XII exit the brain?

Hypoglossal canal

31

Unilateral damage to nerves causes deviation of the uvula to which side?

Uvula will deviate towards UNAFFECTED side, or will deviate away from the affected side

32

What is the motor function of the Hypoglossal nerve?

Extrinsic / Intrinsic muscles of the tongue

33

Weakness / deviation of for example, the left hand side of the tongue suggests a nerve lesion of what side?

Left hand side (Ipsilateral)