Anaesthesia Flashcards Preview

Medicine, Year 2, Block 12 (Neurological, Neuromuscular, and MSK Diseases) > Anaesthesia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anaesthesia Deck (17):
1

What is the mode of action of Curare?

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist (nAChR)

2

What is the mode of action of Atropine?

Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist (mAChR)

3

What is the mode of action of Phenobarbital? What is it used for?

GABA receptor agonist, increasing the flux of Cl- into a neurone which decreases its excitability. Used to treat epilepsy.

4

What is MAC (Minimum Alveolar Concentration)?

The concentration of a vapour in the lungs required to prevent movement in 50% of patients

5

What are the two groups of general anaesthetics?

Intravenous general anaesthetics
Volatile general anaesthetics

6

Give three examples of general anaesthetics which are volatile

Nitrous Oxide
Isoflurane
Sevoflurane

7

What is the mechanism of action of Isoflurane?

Neuronal ion channel modulator, it decreases the conductance of a neurone by decreasing the opening time and increasing the closing time

8

Give three examples of general anaesthetics which are intravenously administered

Propofol
Ketamine
Thiopental

9

Describe the mechanism of action of Propofol?

GABA modulator, slowing down its closure. In high doses can activate GABA receptors also.

10

Why don't Local anaesthetics generally work well in acidic environments such as in an abscess?

Because most Local anaesthetics are alkaline

11

Outline the three classes of pain fibres; what their sizes are and whether they are myelinated or not.

A fibres: Large diameter, with myelination
B fibres: Small diameter, with myelination
C fibres: Small diameter, unmyelination

12

Local anaesthetics will tend to work on which pain fibres more quickly? What might be the symptoms?

C fibres, due to its small diameter and unmyelination. Clinical findings include warm dry feet and vasodilation and hypotension

13

What are the two groups of Local anaesthetics and how do they work?

Antagonistic LAs: Block receptors, non-depolarising
Agonistic LAs: Activative receptors, strongly depolarising

14

Give 2 examples of Antagonistic Local anaesthetics and explain how they work

Tubocurare and Atracurium, which are NAChR antagonists preventing NMJ transmission

15

Reversal agents such as Neostigmine are given following what class of drugs? How does Neostigmine work?

Neostigmine is administered as a reversal agent for Antagonistic, non-depolarising LAs. Act as an Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor to increase ACh in the NMJ for longer

16

Give 1 example of Agonistic Local anaesthetic and explain how they work

Suxamethonium, which is a mimic for ACh, causing depolarisation across the NMJ

17

What can be given in conjunction with Agonistic Local anaesthetics such as Suxamethonium to help potentiate it better? How does it work?

Neostigmine, which is an Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor which will increase ACh in the NMJ longer and depolarise across the NMJ for longer