Physiological Aspects of Pain Management Flashcards Preview

Medicine, Year 2, Block 12 (Neurological, Neuromuscular, and MSK Diseases) > Physiological Aspects of Pain Management > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physiological Aspects of Pain Management Deck (16):
1

How is Pain defined?

An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage

2

Pain can be divided into two main groups - what are they?

Nociceptive pain
Neuropathic pain

3

What are the two types of Nociceptive pain?

Somatic - localised and easily described

Visceral - poorly localised and described

4

Define Allodynia

Pain following normal, non-painful stimuli

5

Define Hyperalgesia

Increased sensitivity to pain

6

Which of these is more difficult to treat: Nociceptive pain or Neuropathic pain?

Neuropathic

7

Give an example of Visceral pain

Early appendicitis

8

What is acute and chronic pain defined as (in terms of time-frame)?

Acute: Less than 3 months
Chronic: More than 3 months

9

What is Peripheral Sensitisation? What is it caused by?

Increased sensitivity to an afferent nerve stimuli

Caused by tissue damage, causing increased release of inflammatory mediators i.e. ATP, PGs. Lowers threshold of pain

10

What is Central Sensitisation caused by?

Increased release of neurotransmitters due to increased peripheral nociceptor activity

11

What are co-morbidities of chronic pain?

- Poor appetite
- Anxiety
- Depression
- Difficulty concentrating
- Drowsiness
- Lack of energy
- Difficulty sleeping

12

Give examples of psychological consequences of experiencing pain

Fear avoidance, somatisation / catastrophising, anxiety / depression

13

Give examples of Assessment Tools used to assess pain

- Visual Analogue Score
- Verbal rating score
- Brief pain inventory
- HAD score
- McGill Pain Score
- LANSS Score

14

If a patient presents with pain, what are some red flags?

- History of cancer
- Constitutional symptoms i.e. fever, chills, weight loss
- Radicular symptoms
- Recent bacterial infection
- Immunosupression

15

What Physical therapies can be offered to reduce pain?

- Exercise / fitness
- Hydrotherapy
- Manipulation
- TENS
- Acupuncture

16

What Psychosocial therapies can be offered to reduce pain?

- Education i.e. focus group / EPP
- Coping strategies
- CBT
- Mindfulness
- Pain management programme