Flashcards in Physiological Aspects of Pain Management Deck (16):
How is Pain defined?
An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage
Pain can be divided into two main groups - what are they?
What are the two types of Nociceptive pain?
Somatic - localised and easily described
Visceral - poorly localised and described
Pain following normal, non-painful stimuli
Increased sensitivity to pain
Which of these is more difficult to treat: Nociceptive pain or Neuropathic pain?
Give an example of Visceral pain
What is acute and chronic pain defined as (in terms of time-frame)?
Acute: Less than 3 months
Chronic: More than 3 months
What is Peripheral Sensitisation? What is it caused by?
Increased sensitivity to an afferent nerve stimuli
Caused by tissue damage, causing increased release of inflammatory mediators i.e. ATP, PGs. Lowers threshold of pain
What is Central Sensitisation caused by?
Increased release of neurotransmitters due to increased peripheral nociceptor activity
What are co-morbidities of chronic pain?
- Poor appetite
- Difficulty concentrating
- Lack of energy
- Difficulty sleeping
Give examples of psychological consequences of experiencing pain
Fear avoidance, somatisation / catastrophising, anxiety / depression
Give examples of Assessment Tools used to assess pain
- Visual Analogue Score
- Verbal rating score
- Brief pain inventory
- HAD score
- McGill Pain Score
- LANSS Score
If a patient presents with pain, what are some red flags?
- History of cancer
- Constitutional symptoms i.e. fever, chills, weight loss
- Radicular symptoms
- Recent bacterial infection
What Physical therapies can be offered to reduce pain?
- Exercise / fitness