The Ear and Hearing Flashcards Preview

Medicine, Year 2, Block 12 (Neurological, Neuromuscular, and MSK Diseases) > The Ear and Hearing > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Ear and Hearing Deck (32):
1

What are the three parts of the ear?

Outer ear
Middle ear
Inner ear

2

What are the three parts of the Outer ear?

Aurical / Pinna
External auditory meatus (ear canal)
Tympanum (ear drum)

3

What is the role of Outer ear?

Converts acoustic energy into kinetic energy

4

Why is the auricle and external auditory meatus shaped in a specific way?

To preferentially filter and amplify sounds for human speech

5

What is the shape of External auditory meatus?

Sigmoidal shaped

6

Describe what the External auditory meatus is surrounded by?

First 1/3rd of canal is surrounded by cartilage

Last 2/3rds of canal is surrounded by bone

7

What is found in the Cartilaginous portion of the Eardrum?

Hair, sebaceous glands, cerumineous glands

8

What structure separates the External ear from the Middle ear?

Tympanic membrane

9

The Tympanic membrane is concave externally - what is the most depressed part of the cavity called?

Umbo

10

Which bone is attached to the medial Tympanic surface?

Malleus

11

The three bones of the Middle ear are called?

Ossicles

12

What is the name of the three Ossicles in the ear? Lateral to medial

Malleus (hammer)
Incus (anvil)
Stapes (stirrup)

13

What is the function of the Eustachian tube?

Pressure equalisation between the middle ear and external ear

14

Where is the Eustachian tube located in the ear?

Middle ear

15

What are the middle ear muscles? What do they attach to?

Tensor tympani: Attached to the Malleus

Stapedius: Attached to the Stapes

16

What is the role of the Middle ear muscles?

Acoustic reflex against high intensity sounds

17

What is the innervation of the Middle ear muscles?

Stapedius: Facial nerve
Tensor Tympani: Mandibular branch of Trigeminal

18

Bone conducts what frequencies of sound compare to air conduction?

Bone conducts lower frequencies than via air conduction

19

The inner ear comprises what two structures?

Cochlear (hearing)
Vestibular system (balance)

20

What are the three structures of the Cohlear?

- Scala media
- Scala vestibuli
- Scala tympanic

21

What is the range of human hearing?

20 Hz to 20,000 Hz

22

What is "Ultrasound" and "Infrasound"

Ultrasound: Beyond human hearing range

Infrasound: Below human hearing range

23

What are the two types of Cillia on the Cochlear hair cells?

Sterocilla (short) and Kinocillium (long)

24

Describe the path of the Auditory pathway (SLIM)

Superior Olivary Complex -> Lateral Lemniscus -> Inferior Colliculus -> Medial Geniculate Nucleus

25

Where is the auditory cortex located in the brain?

Temporal lobe

26

What are the two types of hearing loss?

Conductive hearing loss
Sensorineural hearing loss

27

What is Conductive hearing loss?

Problems conducting sound waves through outer ear, eardrum or middle ear

28

What is Sensorineural hearing loss?

Problems in the cochlea, vestibulocochlear nerve or auditory cortex of brain

29

By performing the Rinne's test, and it is found that Air Conduction (AC) is better than Bone Conduction (BC) - what does this mean?

Either normal, or sensorineural deafness

30

By performing the Rinne's test, and it is found that Bone Conduction (BC) is better than Air Conduction (BC) - what does this mean?

Conductive deafness

31

I have performed a Rinne test which found AC > BC, after performing Weber's the patient said they sounded the noise louder on the right side - what is the diagnosis?

Left sensorineural deafness

32

I have performed a Rinne test which found AC > BC, after performing Weber's the patient said they sounded the noise louder on the left side - what is the diagnosis?

Right sensorineural deafness