Dementias Flashcards Preview

Medicine, Year 2, Block 12 (Neurological, Neuromuscular, and MSK Diseases) > Dementias > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dementias Deck (9):

State some forms of Dementia

- Alzheimer's Disease
- Mixed (Vascular and Alzheimer's)
- Vascular Dementia
- Lewy Body Dementia


Outline the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease

1. Abnormal processing of APP to produce beta-amyloid. This may disrupt neurotransmission between neurones, or lead to Amyloid Angiopathy
2. Abnormal neurofibillary tangles from Phosphorylated tau protein
3. Both beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibillary tangles lead to an inflammatory response and neuronal death


What does the pathology of Alzheimer's disease look like?

- Wider sulci and narrower gyri
- Larger ventricles of the brain


Why might Alzheimer's Disease be associated with Down's syndrome?

Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) gene is located on Chromosome 21, which Down's syndrome patients have an extra copy of


Outline the drug treatments for Alzheimer's disease with examples

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors, i.e. Donepezil, Galantamine, Rivistagmine

NMDA Receptor Antagonists i.e. Memantine


Outline the pathophysiology of Lewy Body Dementia

Lewy bodies are formed by misfolded alpha-synuclein


On histopathology, what might Lewy Body dementia look like?

Dark eosinophillic inclusions


Outline the pathophysiology of Vascular dementia

Caused by ischaemic / haemorrhagic infarcts


What are risk factors of Vascular Dementia?

- Hypertension
- Hypercholesterolaemia
- Diabetes
- Smoking
- Ischaemic heart disease