Flashcards in Dementias Deck (9):
State some forms of Dementia
- Alzheimer's Disease
- Mixed (Vascular and Alzheimer's)
- Vascular Dementia
- Lewy Body Dementia
Outline the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease
1. Abnormal processing of APP to produce beta-amyloid. This may disrupt neurotransmission between neurones, or lead to Amyloid Angiopathy
2. Abnormal neurofibillary tangles from Phosphorylated tau protein
3. Both beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibillary tangles lead to an inflammatory response and neuronal death
What does the pathology of Alzheimer's disease look like?
- Wider sulci and narrower gyri
- Larger ventricles of the brain
Why might Alzheimer's Disease be associated with Down's syndrome?
Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) gene is located on Chromosome 21, which Down's syndrome patients have an extra copy of
Outline the drug treatments for Alzheimer's disease with examples
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors, i.e. Donepezil, Galantamine, Rivistagmine
NMDA Receptor Antagonists i.e. Memantine
Outline the pathophysiology of Lewy Body Dementia
Lewy bodies are formed by misfolded alpha-synuclein
On histopathology, what might Lewy Body dementia look like?
Dark eosinophillic inclusions
Outline the pathophysiology of Vascular dementia
Caused by ischaemic / haemorrhagic infarcts