Dementias Flashcards Preview

Medicine, Year 2, Block 12 (Neurological, Neuromuscular, and MSK Diseases) > Dementias > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dementias Deck (9):
1

State some forms of Dementia

- Alzheimer's Disease
- Mixed (Vascular and Alzheimer's)
- Vascular Dementia
- Lewy Body Dementia

2

Outline the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease

1. Abnormal processing of APP to produce beta-amyloid. This may disrupt neurotransmission between neurones, or lead to Amyloid Angiopathy
2. Abnormal neurofibillary tangles from Phosphorylated tau protein
3. Both beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibillary tangles lead to an inflammatory response and neuronal death

3

What does the pathology of Alzheimer's disease look like?

- Wider sulci and narrower gyri
- Larger ventricles of the brain

4

Why might Alzheimer's Disease be associated with Down's syndrome?

Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) gene is located on Chromosome 21, which Down's syndrome patients have an extra copy of

5

Outline the drug treatments for Alzheimer's disease with examples

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors, i.e. Donepezil, Galantamine, Rivistagmine

NMDA Receptor Antagonists i.e. Memantine

6

Outline the pathophysiology of Lewy Body Dementia

Lewy bodies are formed by misfolded alpha-synuclein

7

On histopathology, what might Lewy Body dementia look like?

Dark eosinophillic inclusions

8

Outline the pathophysiology of Vascular dementia

Caused by ischaemic / haemorrhagic infarcts

9

What are risk factors of Vascular Dementia?

- Hypertension
- Hypercholesterolaemia
- Diabetes
- Smoking
- Ischaemic heart disease