Examination of the Limbs Flashcards Preview

Medicine, Year 2, Block 12 (Neurological, Neuromuscular, and MSK Diseases) > Examination of the Limbs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Examination of the Limbs Deck (33):
1

What are the two phases of the Gait cycle?

Stance Phase

Swing Phase

2

What is the difference between a step and a stride?

Step: Distance between one footstep and other footstep

Stride: Distance between one footstep and the same foot striking again

3

Where is the centre of mass located?

2 cm from the S2 vertebrae

4

Describe what the Antalgic Gait is with respect to the Swing and Stance phase

The weight on the affected limb is minimised. Less time is spent on stance phase and the swing phase is increased

5

Describe what the High Step / Neuropathic Gait is

Due to weak dorsiflexors ankle is weak / flaccid, it "slaps" down and the elasticity in the heel is absent

6

Describe what the Foot Drop gait is

Due to sciatic nerve injury, or paralysis of the Tibialis Anterior muscle

7

Describe the Trendelenburg Gait

Drop of pelvis when lifting the leg opposite to the side of Weak Abductor muscles, Gluteus medius and minimus

8

Shoulder abduction is a movement which is underpinned by what two bones?

2/3rds of abduction: Shoulder joint proper

1/3rd of abduction: Scapula

9

What is Frozen Shoulder Syndrome also known as?

Adhesive Capsulitis

10

What is Frozen Shoulder Syndrome caused by? What affect does this have on movement?

Adhesions building up in the shoulder joint, limiting movement in the shoulder joint proper. 2/3rds of shoulder movement is hence limited

11

What is a reliable test for a Rotator Cuff tear?

Drop Arm Test

12

What is a reliable test for Scapula Elevation?

Shoulder Shrug

13

What does the Axillary nerve supply?

- Deltoid muscle
- Regimental badge region

14

What nerve supplies sensation to the Deltoid muscle and the Regimental badge region?

Axillary nerve

15

What two movements of the forearm does the Biceps brachii assist with?

Flexion and supination of the forearm

16

Where do you have a greater degree of movement, in ulnar or radial deviation?

Ulnar deviation > Radial deviation

17

What is a reliable test for fixed flexion of the hip?

Thomas test

18

What is the degree of femoral neck anteversion in babies and adults?

At birth: 50 - 60 degrees
At adulthood: 10 - 15 degrees

19

How does the foot appear in femoral neck anteversion and retroversion?

Anteversion: In-toe gait
Retroversion: Out-toe gait

20

Where is true leg length measured from?

ASIS to medial malleolus

21

Where is apparent leg length measured from?

Umbilicus to medial malleolus

22

What is Genu valgum and Genu varus, and Genu recurvatum?

Genu valgum - Knock knees
Genu varus - Bowed legs
Genu recurvatum - Back knees

23

What test is used to test for Anterior Cruciate ligament?

Positive anterior draw test/sign

24

What test is used to test for Posterior Cruciate ligament?

Posterior sag

25

What neurological level supplies motor function to the Tibilias anterior?

Neurological Level L4

26

What neurological level supplies reflex enervation to the knee jerk?

Neurological Level L4

27

What neurological level supplies sensation to the Medial Malleolus?

Neurological Level L4

28

What neurological level supplies motor function to the Extensor Hallux?

Neurological Level L5

29

What reflex is supplied by Neurological Level 5?

None

30

What neurological level supplies sensation to the dorsum of the foot?

Neurological Level L5

31

What neurological level supplies motor function to the Perineum?

Neurological Level S1

32

What neurological level supplies the reflex supply to the ankle jerk?

Neurological Level S1

33

What neurological level supplies sensation to the lateral border of the foot?

Neurological Level S1