Flashcards in Epilepsy Deck (25):
What is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain?
What is the receptor for the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain?
What is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain?
What is the receptor for the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain?
What is Epilepsy defined as?
Two or more seizures within a 12 month period
What is the main ion which is involved in excitatory Glutamate transmission of the brain?
Calcium ions, Ca2+
What is the main ion which is involved in inhibitory GABA transmission of the brain?
What are some symptoms experienced after a seizure?
- Postictal confusion
- Todd's paralysis
If a patient loses consciousness during a seizure, is this a generalised or focal seizure?
What is a Tonic seizure?
Type of generalised seizure, whereby patient is stiff and flexed and may fall backwards
What is a Atonic seizure?
Type of generalised seizure, whereby patient is relaxed and may fall forwards
What is a Clonic seizure?
Type of generalised seizure, characterised by violent muscle contractions
What is a Tonic-Clonic seizure?
Type of generalised seizure, characterised by a flexed / stiff phase, followed by violent muscle contractions
What is a Myoclonic seizure?
Type of generalised seizure, characterised by short muscle twitches
What is an Absent seizure?
Type of generalised seizure, involving sudden LOC, blank stare etc.
A seizure which began as Focal and becomes Generalised is called...?
Focal onset bilateral tonic clonic seizure
What is the Jacksonian March?
Refers to a Focal seizure, whereby one group of muscles twitching, spreads to other muscle groups
What is Status Epilepticus?
Seizures lasting greater than 5 mins
What is the principle behind Ketogenic diets for Epilepsy?
High fat diet, which generates ketone bodies for the brain to use instead of glucose
Give one example of a genetic cause for Epilepsy
Tuberous Sclerosis (benign tumours in the brain, skin etc.)
State four Na+ channel blocking anti-epileptic drugs
- Sodium Valproate
State three GABA receptor agonist anti-epileptic drugs
- Sodium Valproate
State one T-type Ca2+ channel blocker anti-epileptic drug
What is the mechanism of action of anti-psychotic Haloperidol?
DOPA receptor antagonist