Epilepsy Flashcards Preview

Medicine, Year 2, Block 12 (Neurological, Neuromuscular, and MSK Diseases) > Epilepsy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Epilepsy Deck (25):
1

What is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain?

Glutamate

2

What is the receptor for the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain?

NMDA receptor

3

What is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain?

GABA

4

What is the receptor for the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain?

GABA receptor

5

What is Epilepsy defined as?

Two or more seizures within a 12 month period

6

What is the main ion which is involved in excitatory Glutamate transmission of the brain?

Calcium ions, Ca2+

7

What is the main ion which is involved in inhibitory GABA transmission of the brain?

Chloride, Cl-

8

What are some symptoms experienced after a seizure?

- Postictal confusion
- Todd's paralysis

9

If a patient loses consciousness during a seizure, is this a generalised or focal seizure?

Generalised

10

What is a Tonic seizure?

Type of generalised seizure, whereby patient is stiff and flexed and may fall backwards

11

What is a Atonic seizure?

Type of generalised seizure, whereby patient is relaxed and may fall forwards

12

What is a Clonic seizure?

Type of generalised seizure, characterised by violent muscle contractions

13

What is a Tonic-Clonic seizure?

Type of generalised seizure, characterised by a flexed / stiff phase, followed by violent muscle contractions

14

What is a Myoclonic seizure?

Type of generalised seizure, characterised by short muscle twitches

15

What is an Absent seizure?

Type of generalised seizure, involving sudden LOC, blank stare etc.

16

A seizure which began as Focal and becomes Generalised is called...?

Focal onset bilateral tonic clonic seizure

17

What is the Jacksonian March?

Refers to a Focal seizure, whereby one group of muscles twitching, spreads to other muscle groups

18

What is Status Epilepticus?

Seizures lasting greater than 5 mins

19

What is the principle behind Ketogenic diets for Epilepsy?

High fat diet, which generates ketone bodies for the brain to use instead of glucose

20

Give one example of a genetic cause for Epilepsy

Tuberous Sclerosis (benign tumours in the brain, skin etc.)

21

State four Na+ channel blocking anti-epileptic drugs

- Sodium Valproate
- Phenytoin
- Lamotrigine
- Carbamazepine

22

State three GABA receptor agonist anti-epileptic drugs

- Sodium Valproate
- Phenobarbital
- Diazepam

23

State one T-type Ca2+ channel blocker anti-epileptic drug

- Ethosuxamide

24

What is the mechanism of action of anti-psychotic Haloperidol?

DOPA receptor antagonist

25

Of all the anti-epileptic drugs, which one has a narrow therapeutic index?

Phenytoin