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Flashcards in CNS Deck (61)
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1

neural tube defect: no cerebral hemispheres

anencephaly

2

neural tube defect: meninges and brain don't close

encephalocele

3

neural tube defect: meninges don't close

cranial meningocele

4

neural tube defect: meninges and spinal cord; spina bifida

meningomyelocele

5

neural tube defect: meninges; spina bifida

spinal meningocele

6

neural tube defect: vertebral arches do not close; no herniation; hairy patch

spina bifida occulta

7

disorders of forebrain development: brain is not divided hemispheres

holoprosencephaly

8

holoprosencephaly can result in ...

cyclopia

9

disorders of forebrain development: many small gyri

polymicrogyria

10

disorders of forebrain development: no gryation

lissencephaly

11

disorders of forebrain development: brain cells not divided in organized layers

cerebral cortical dysplasia

12

"water on the brain" -too much CSF for whatever reason. usually obstruction in flow

hydrocephalus

13

posterior skull too small, structures impede CSF flow

Arnold-Chiari malformations

14

cystic cerebellar vermis (the middle part) causes outflow obstruction of CSF

Dandy-Walker malformation

15

also known as "Phakomatoses"; malformations and non-neoplastic and neoplastic growths of nervous system, skin, and other systems

neurocutaneous syndromes

16

gliomas and meningiomas; NF1 tumor suppressor gene; cafe au lait; lisch nodule

neurofibromatosis I

17

germinal matrix hemorrhage- common in extreme ...

prematurity

18

usually idiopathic, but can be caused by an assault on the brain (metabolic, infectious, trauma); lesion is often in temporal lobe; causes periods of clonus with unconsciousness

epilepsy

19

increased ICP; blood-brain barrier not intact; fluid seeps out of vessels; little lymphatic drainage

vasogenic cerebral edema

20

increased ICP: cells themselves swell with fluid due to injury

cytotoxic cerebral edema

21

increased ICP: cerebrum slips under the "falx"-a fold of dura at the top

subfalcine herniation

22

increased ICP: cerebrum slips under the "tentorium cerebelli"-a fold of dura at the sides, also known as "Uncal" from the actual area that is affected

transtentorial herniation

23

increased ICP: tonsils of cerebellum slip through foramen magnum

tonsillar herniations

24

Increased ICP: buildup of the CSF in ventricles, typically due to decreased outflow

hydrocephalus

25

in hydrocephalus: if cranial sutures are fused, results in ...

big ventricles and compressed brain matter

26

in hydrocephalus: if sutures are open, results in ...

increased head size

27

one treatment strategy for hydrocephalus is ... where a conduit is placed into the ventricles to drain fluid, either to an outside container or to peritoneal cavity in the abdomen

shunting

28

most due to atherosclerotic vascular disease; blurring between gray and white matter; red dead neurons; gliosis

cerebral infarcts

29

perfusion to entire brain is inadequate; results in ischemia

global hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

30

most common reason for intracranial hemorrhages

hypertension