CNS Flashcards Preview

Dental Pathology > CNS > Flashcards

Flashcards in CNS Deck (61):
1

neural tube defect: no cerebral hemispheres

anencephaly

2

neural tube defect: meninges and brain don't close

encephalocele

3

neural tube defect: meninges don't close

cranial meningocele

4

neural tube defect: meninges and spinal cord; spina bifida

meningomyelocele

5

neural tube defect: meninges; spina bifida

spinal meningocele

6

neural tube defect: vertebral arches do not close; no herniation; hairy patch

spina bifida occulta

7

disorders of forebrain development: brain is not divided hemispheres

holoprosencephaly

8

holoprosencephaly can result in ...

cyclopia

9

disorders of forebrain development: many small gyri

polymicrogyria

10

disorders of forebrain development: no gryation

lissencephaly

11

disorders of forebrain development: brain cells not divided in organized layers

cerebral cortical dysplasia

12

"water on the brain" -too much CSF for whatever reason. usually obstruction in flow

hydrocephalus

13

posterior skull too small, structures impede CSF flow

Arnold-Chiari malformations

14

cystic cerebellar vermis (the middle part) causes outflow obstruction of CSF

Dandy-Walker malformation

15

also known as "Phakomatoses"; malformations and non-neoplastic and neoplastic growths of nervous system, skin, and other systems

neurocutaneous syndromes

16

gliomas and meningiomas; NF1 tumor suppressor gene; cafe au lait; lisch nodule

neurofibromatosis I

17

germinal matrix hemorrhage- common in extreme ...

prematurity

18

usually idiopathic, but can be caused by an assault on the brain (metabolic, infectious, trauma); lesion is often in temporal lobe; causes periods of clonus with unconsciousness

epilepsy

19

increased ICP; blood-brain barrier not intact; fluid seeps out of vessels; little lymphatic drainage

vasogenic cerebral edema

20

increased ICP: cells themselves swell with fluid due to injury

cytotoxic cerebral edema

21

increased ICP: cerebrum slips under the "falx"-a fold of dura at the top

subfalcine herniation

22

increased ICP: cerebrum slips under the "tentorium cerebelli"-a fold of dura at the sides, also known as "Uncal" from the actual area that is affected

transtentorial herniation

23

increased ICP: tonsils of cerebellum slip through foramen magnum

tonsillar herniations

24

Increased ICP: buildup of the CSF in ventricles, typically due to decreased outflow

hydrocephalus

25

in hydrocephalus: if cranial sutures are fused, results in ...

big ventricles and compressed brain matter

26

in hydrocephalus: if sutures are open, results in ...

increased head size

27

one treatment strategy for hydrocephalus is ... where a conduit is placed into the ventricles to drain fluid, either to an outside container or to peritoneal cavity in the abdomen

shunting

28

most due to atherosclerotic vascular disease; blurring between gray and white matter; red dead neurons; gliosis

cerebral infarcts

29

perfusion to entire brain is inadequate; results in ischemia

global hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

30

most common reason for intracranial hemorrhages

hypertension

31

likely due to acquired weakening in wall; found in circle of willis; most at bifurcations; can cause subarachnoid hemorrhage;

saccular (or berry) aneurysms

32

patients experience a pass out -> "lucid interval" -> rapid decompensation; often caused by rupture of middle meningeal artery with accompanying skull fracture; characteristic "lens" shape on CT scan; requires emergent drainage

epidural hematoma

33

acute or chronic; not a dramatic because of slower venous bleeding rate; often occurs in elderly and may be diagnosed as dementia; "crescent" shaped bleeding

subdural hematoma

34

characteristic whiplash motion: auto accident; axonal swellings: spheroids

diffuse axonal injury

35

contusion: the actual impact

coup

36

contusion: the brain banging against the opposite side

counter coup

37

most common demyelinating disease; plaques in white matter

multiple sclerosis

38

most common cause of dementia in the elderly; amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles

alzheimer's disease

39

beta-amyloid protein

amyloid plaques

40

tau protein

neurofibrillary tangles

41

loss of pigmented neurons in substantia nigra; movement disorder; lewy bodies

parkinson's

42

involuntary writhing movements: chorea; depression and dementia; expansion of CAG triplet; atrophy of caudate nucleus and cortex

huntington disease

43

degeneration of upper and lower neurons; muscle atrophy and weakness spasticity; bunina bodies

amytrophic lateral sclerosis

44

very malignant; most common in kids; occurs in cerebellum; small round blue cells forming Homer Wright pseudorosettes

medulloblastoma

45

glial tumor: necrosis and pseudopallasading; ring enhancing lesion; microvascular proliferation

glioblastoma

46

glial tumor: commonly adulthood; cerebral hemispheres; "fried egg appearance", "satellitosis"

oligodendroglioma

47

glial tumor: mostly in ventricles or central canal of spinal cord; perivascular pseudorosettes

ependyomas

48

arise from cells covering brain and spinal cord; psammoma bodies

meningioma

49

most common tumor of the brain

metastatic tumor

50

inflammation limited to the meninges and the subarachnoid space; nuchal rigidity, photophobia and headache

meningitis

51

meningitis: usually bacterial; E coli, meningococcus

acute pyogenic meningitis

52

meningitis: viral; ECHO, coxsackie, EBV, HSV

acute lymphocytic meningitis

53

meningitis: prototype: M. tuberculosis

chronic meningitis

54

most due to bacteria from nasopharynx via bloodstream; congested meninges; exudate in subarachnoid space; brain tissue itself not infected

acute purulent meningitis

55

encephalitis: infection elsewhere travelling via bloodstream; adjacent infections in ear and sinuses

abscess

56

encephalitis: caseating granuloma

tuberculosis

57

encephalitis: typically AIDS patients, ring enhancing lesion

toxoplasmosis

58

encephalitis: most common cause of sporadic encephalitis in US; temporal lobes and orbital frontal areas

herpes simplex virus type 1

59

encephalitis: classi negri bodies in neurons; symptoms occur too late

rabies

60

associated with abnormal prion protein; Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease

transmissible spongiform encephalitis

61

highly resistant to heat and most disinfectants; abnormally folded forms cannot be cleared from the brain and cause toxicity

prion protein