Salivary Gland Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Salivary Gland Pathology Deck (83):
1

Common lesion resulting from damage of the salivary duct, with extravasation (spillage) of mucin into the surrounding tissue, frequently due to local trauma

Mucocele (Mucus Extravasation Phenomenon)

2

Most on the LOWER LIP of children or young adults, fluctuant, dome shaped swelling with a translucent blue color, may wax and wane

Mucocele

3

variant of mucocele secondary to superficial location of the mucin, palate, retromolar pad, posterior buccal mucosa

superficial mucocele

4

variant of mucocele occuring in the floor of the mouth, usually from the sublingual gland, although some arise from the submandibular duct

ranula

5

translucent blue or normal colored, fluctuant swelling in the floor of the mouth, may cause elevation of the tongue

ranula

6

Variant of ranula- mucin penetrating the mylohyoid muscle, showing submandibular swelling or swelling of the neck

plugging ranula

7

epithelial-lined cavity filled with mucin, most probably arise secondary to ductal obstruction, which increases intraluminal pressure, probably represent ductal ectasia (dilation) rather than a true cyst

salivary duct cyst (mucus retention cyst; mucus duct cyst)

8

typically adults; major (parotid) or minor glands (floor of mouth, buccal mucosa, lips; fluctuant asymptomatic swelling

salivary duct cyst

9

cystic space lined by cuboidal or columnar epithelium; may acquire papillary infoldings

salivary duct cyst

10

salivary duct calcifications of unknown etiology; arise secondary to deposition of calcium salts around a nidus of debris; unrelated to calcium-phosphorus metabolism

sialolithiasis

11

usually within the submandibular duct; episodic pain and/or swelling; may have palpable mass; minor gland involvement will often be asymptomatic; radiographic appearance- opaque mass

sialolithiasis

12

concentric laminations around an amorphous central nidus; inflammation of duct and adjacent glands; may see squamous, oncocytic, or mucous cell metaplasia

sialolithiasis

13

inflammation of salivary glands; infectious (viral, bacterial) or noninfectious (sjogren, sarcoidosis, radiation) etiology, "surgical mumps"- post abdominal surgery

sialadenitis

14

_ _ sialadenitis- typically involves the parotid, swollen, painful gland, purulent discharge

acute bacterial

15

_ sialadenitis- usually secondary to recurrent or persistent ductal obstruction (sialolith), episodic pain and swelling, usually at mealtime, submandibular involvement may include persistent enlargement (Kuttner tumor)

chronic

16

excessive salivation; associated with local irritation (dentures), medications, heavy metal poisoning, GI reflux disease; may also be seen in patients with poor neuromuscular control

sialorrhea

17

drooling, choking; may cause irritation or open sores of the surrounding skin

sialorrhea

18

subjective sensation of dry mouth; secondary to a number of systemic conditions; aging, smoking, or medications and treatments

xerostomia

19

systemic diseases associated w/ xerostomia

sjogren, diabetes, sarcoidosis, HIV

20

The following medications are associated with _: antihistamines (diphenhydramine), decongestants (pseudoephedrine), antidepressants (amitriptyline), antipsychotics, antihypertensives, anticholinergics (atropine, scopolamine)

xerostomia

21

F>M, elderly; thick, foamy saliva; dry mucosa, with atrophy and fissuring; increased incidence of candidiasis infection

xerostomia

22

_-related caries: caries of the root surface or cervical area secondary to lack of salivary protection

xerostomia

23

intense lymphocytic infiltration of the salivary glands; most are associated with Sjogren

Benign lymphoepithelial lesion

24

benign lymphoepithelial lesion by itself

Mikulicz's disease

25

benign lymphoepithelial lesion in combination with another disease such as sjogren's syndrome

Mikulicz's syndrome

26

typically bilateral; F>M, average age 50; usually an asymptomatic, diffuse swelling of the parotid gland; epimyoepithelial islands

benign lymphoepithelial lesion

27

surgical removal of the involved gland; good prognosis, although an increased risk of developing lymphoma; MALT lymphoma

benign lymphoepithelial lesion

28

autoimmune disorder affecting the salivary and lacrimal glands

sjogren syndrome

29

_ sjogren syndrome- sjogren along

primary

30

_ sjogren syndrome- sjogren along with another autoimmune disorder (SLE, rheumatoid arthritis)

secondary

31

unknown etiology, although an association with certain histocompatibility antigens (HLA-DRw52, HLA-B8, HLA-DR3) has been found

Sjogren

32

F>>M, Sicca syndrome

sjogren

33

xerostomia and xeropthalmia

sicca syndrome

34

sialographic appearance- "Fruit-laden, branchless tree"

Sjogren

35

Anti-SS-A (anti-Ro), Anti-SS-B (anti-La)

Sjogren

36

Major glands show benign lymphoepithelial lesion; labial salivary gland biopsy shows focal aggregates or lymphocytes

Sjogren

37

40-fold increase in development of lymphoma (non-Hodgkin's B-cell)

Sjogren

38

Noninflammatory salivary gland enlargement, usually associated with an underlying systemic disorder; conditions associated include diabetes, alcoholism, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, malnutrition; these conditions result in dysregulation of the autonomic innervation of the salivary acini

sialodenosis

39

typically bilateral involvement of the parotid glands; slowly progressing painless or painful swelling of the involved gland

sialadenosis

40

may see a decrease in salivation; sialographic presentation- Leafless tree

sialadenosis

41

Prominent zymogen granules

sialadenosis

42

_ associated with alcoholism or diabetes may show atrophy and fatty infiltrate

sialadenosis

43

localized swelling (hyperplasia) of minor salivary glands; unknown pathogenesis; significance lies in the resemblance to neoplasia

adenomatoid hyperplasia

44

soft or firm swelling of the soft or hard palate; 4th-6th decade; asymptomatic

adenomatoid hyperplasia

45

Hyperplastic aggregates of normal salivary gland tissue

adenomatoid hyperplasia

46

Locally destructive inflammatory process of unknown etiology; possibly due to local ischemia; may be associated with previous surgery, adjacent tumors, dental infections, trauma

necrotizing sialometaplasia

47

M>F, average age 46, most involve the palatal salivary glands; Unilateral>bilateral

necrotizing sialometaplasia

48

initial painful swelling; 2-3 weeks, necrotic tissue sloughs, leaving a crater-like ulcer; may resemble a malignant process

necrotizing sialometaplasia

49

Squamous metaplasia of the salivary ducts (often misdiagnosed); pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia of the overlying epithelium; process may mimic malignancy

necrotizing sialometaplasia

50

Resolves within 5-6 weeks

necrotizing sialometaplasia

51

Most salivary gland tumors (up to 2/3) involve the _ gland

parotid

52

Most salivary gland tumors (up to 3/4) are benign or malignant?

benign

53

_ gland- 8-11% of tumors, with up to 45% malignant

submandibular

54

_ gland- rare site for tumors but most (up to 90%) are malignant

sublingual

55

Second most common site for tumors is the _ _ glands, with almost 50% malignant

minor salivary

56

the most common of all salivary gland tumors; tumor arises from a mixture of ductal epithelium and myoepithelial elements; the term pleomorphic refers to the variety of patterns that may be seen

pleomorphic adenoma (benign mixed tumor)

57

F>M, mostly in young adults; slowly growing, rubbery firm mass; parotid tumors usually located within the superficial lobe; palate is the most common site for minor salivary tumors, followed by upper lip

pleomorphic adenoma

58

myoepithelial component and stroma is highly variable; tumors may be composed almost entirely of myoepithelial cells

pleomorphic adenoma

59

as many as _% of pleomorphic adenomas may undergo malignant transformation (carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma)

5%

60

second most common benign tumor of the parotid; uncertain pathogenesis; strongly associated with history of smoking

Warthin's tumor (papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum)

61

M>F, older adults, slow growing mass (firm or fluctuant) involving the tail of the parotid; 5-14% bilateral

warthin's tumor

62

cystic spaces surrounded by a double row of oncocytes; prominent lymphoid stroma

warthin's

63

original terminology for benign salivary tumors of one cell type; archaic term

monomorphic adenoma

64

tumor of minor salivary glands, primarily those of the upper lip; older adults; F>M; slow growing, firm to fluctuant mass

canalicular adenoma

65

often encapsulated; columnar or cuboidal cells arranged in cords or parallel rows

canalicular adenoma

66

common malignant salivary tumor of mucous and squamous differentiation; highly variable biologic bahavior

mucoepidermoid carcinoma

67

the most common malignant salivary gland tumor (children as well); F>M; parotid and minor glands of the palate most common sites

mucoepidermoid carcinoma

68

typically an asymptomatic swelling; intraosseous tumors sometimes occur; mixture of mucous and squamous cells in variable ratios

mucoepidermoid carcinoma

69

central tumor, possibly arising from entrapped ectopic salivary gland tissue or odontogenic epithelium; the most common intraosseous salivary gland tumor; histologically identical to soft tissue tumor

intraosseous (central) mucoepidermoid carcinoma

70

F>M, middle-aged adults; mandible>maxilla; swelling, pain, paresthesia; unilocular or multilocular radiolucency

intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma

71

salivary gland malignancy of serous acinar differentiation; typically considered a low-grade malignancy

acinic cell adenocarcinoma

72

F>M, average age 45; most commonly involves the parotid gland or minor glands of the buccal mucosa; typically asymptomatic

acinic cell adenocarcinoma

73

malignant counterpart to pleomorphic adenoma

malignant mixed tumor

74

pleomorphic adenoma that undergoes malignant transformation; F>M, older adults; most involve the major glands, primarily the parotid; present for years with recent increase in size and/or symptoms

carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma

75

rare tumor, featuring malignant epithelial and stromal components

carcinosarcoma

76

histologically benign pleomorphic adenoma that has metastasized to distant location

metastasizing mixed tumor

77

tumor showing residual benign tumor and areas featuring malignant characteristics of the epithelial component

carcinoma ex PA

78

carcinomatous and sarcomatous areas

carcinosarcoma

79

common and well recognized salivary gland malignancy; relentless tumor requiring long-term follow-up; F>M, middle aged adults; majority involve the minor salivary glands of the palate; typically painful

adenoid cystic carcinoma

80

may cause ulceration of the overlying mucosa; may erode adjacent bone

adenoid cystic carcinoma

81

recently recognized tumor (1983); currently seen as one of the more common salivary gland tumors

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinom

82

F>M, older adults; most involve the minor salivary glands of the palate; usually painless mass of long duration

polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma

83

deceptively uniform cells with round or ovoid nuclei and abundant cytoplasm; "Indian filling"

polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma