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Flashcards in Bone Deck (64):
1

Osteogenesis imperfecta: secondary to mutation in either the _ or _ genes, which guide type 1 collagen formation

COL1A1 or COL1A2

2

osteopenia, bowing, angulation, or deformity of long bones; multiple fractures; wormian bones of the skull

osteogenesis imperfecta

3

most common and least severe form of osteogenesis imperfecta, moderately severe bone fragility, blue sclera, hearing loss before age 30, some show opalescent teeth

type 1

4

most severe form of osteogenesis imperfecta, extreme bone fragility with frequent fractures, blue sclera, some opalescent teeth

type 2

5

most severe form of osteogenesis imperfecta beyond perinatal period; moderately severe bone fragility, blue sclera, kyphoscoliosis, some opalescent teeth

type 3

6

type _ of osteogenesis imperfecta; mild to moderate bone fragility, blue sclera fades with age, bone fractures, decrease after puberty, some opalescent teeth

type 4

7

hereditary disorder characterized by increased bone density; secondary to defect in osteoclastic function; the defect results in thickening of cortical bone and sclerosis of cancellous bone

osteopetrosis

8

_ form of osteopetrosis: normocytic anemia, symptoms secondary to cranial nerve pressure, pathologic fracture, skull deformities, hypertelorism, delayed tooth eruption, autosomal recessive

infantile (malignant)

9

_ form of osteopetrosis: milder, typically detected upon routine radiograph, no anemia, no cranial nerve compression, uncommon pathologic fracture, osteomyelitis, autosomal dominant

adult (benign)

10

numerous osteoclasts; lack of howship's lacunae; dense bone formation

osteopetrosis

11

hereditary bone defect of the bone and clavicles; secondary to defect in the CBFA 1 gene, which guides osteoblastic diffentiation and bone formation; autosomal dominant inheritance pattern

cleidocranial dysplasia

12

frontal and parietal bossing; ocular hypertelorism; mid-face hypoplasia; open fontanels and wormian bones

cleidocranial dysplasia

13

hypoplasia or absence of clavicles; oral: numerous unerupted and supernumerary teeth, high arched palate

cleidocranial dysplasia

14

harmless process that may mimic pathology; may be secondary to aberrant bone regeneration following extraction, persistance of fetal marrow, and/or marrow hyperplasia

focal osteoporotic marrow defect

15

F>M, posterior mandible, asymptomatic, ill-defined radiolucency with fine trabeculations; normal bone, cellular hematopoietic marrow

focal osteoporotic marrow defect

16

focal area of bone density of unknown etiology; often confused with condensing osteitis

idiopathic osteosclerosis

17

age 20-40; mandibular first molar area; asymptomatic; well defined area of radiopacity

idiopathic osteosclerosis

18

disease of bone characterized by abnormal resorption and deposition of bone; unknown etiology; evidence has suggested a possible viral etiology; recent gene mutations have also been identified

paget's disease of bone (osteitis deformans)

19

M>F; older individuals; monostotic vs. polyostotic; thickened enlarged, and weakened bones; often painful

paget's disease

20

maxilla>mandible, enlarged alveolar ridges, may see spacing of the teeth

paget's disease

21

radiograph: early- decreased radiodensity and altered trabeculation, later- patchy, sclerotic bone (cotton wool), hypercementosis

paget's disease

22

increased serum alkaline phosphatase; normal calcium and phosphorous levels; elevated urinary hydroxyproline; osteoblastic formation and osteoclastic resorption of bone; basophilic reversal lines (mosaic or jigsaw pattern)

paget's disease

23

_ develops in about 1% of Paget's patients

osteosarcoma

24

non-neoplastic lesion of the jaws; significance lies in differentiation from brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism and association with cherubism

central giant cell granuloma

25

F>M, aggressive vs. non-aggressive, typically painless expansile, mandible, anterior to the first molar, may cross the midline, unilocular to multilocular radiolucency

central giant cell granuloma

26

spindle cell proliferation with variable numbers of multinucleated giant cells, erythrocytic extravasation and hemosiderin deposition, may see osteoid

central giant cell granuloma

27

rare autosomal dominant condition of the jaws, children, painless bilateral expansion, usually involves the posterior mandible

cherubism

28

"eyes turned up to heaven" appearance, multilocular, expansile radiolucencies, Noonan-like syndrome

cherubism

29

giant cell granuloma with more loosely arranged stroma, giant cells are focally aggregated, eosinophilic hyaline angiopathy

cherubism

30

benign empty or fluid-filled cavity of uncertain pathogenesis; actually not a true cyst (no epithelial lining); trauma-hemorrhage theory is probably the most popular of the potential explanations; others include ischemic necrosis, growth disturbances

traumatic bone cyst (simple bone cyst)

31

M>F, most involve the mandible; typically asymptomatic; radiolucency with sharply or ill-defined margins; scalloping between roots; thin lining of fibrovascular connective tissue along the bony wall; no epithelial lining

traumatic bone cyst

32

nonspecific term used to describe a number of processes that are characterized by fibrous connective tissue and mineralized tissue; due to similarity in histopathologic features, radiographic and/or clinical correlation is necessary to establish a definitive diagnosis

benign fibro-osseous lesions of the jaws

33

All of theses processes are _: fibrous dysplasia, cemento-osseous dysplasia, ossifying (cemento-ossifying) fibroma

benign fibro-osseous lesions of the jaws

34

developmental process secondary to a postzygotic mutation in the GNAS 1 gene; three froms; typically affects children during the first or second decade; M=F

fibrous dysplasia

35

_ fibrous dysplasia: slowly growing enlargement of a single bone; frequently involves the jaws; "ground glass" radiograph

monostotic

36

_ of fibrous dysplasia: typically involves the long bones; pathologic fracture, pain, deformity; cafe au lait pigmentation

jaffe-lichtenstein

37

_ of fibrous dysplasia: polyostotic features; cafe au lait pigmentation; multiple endocrinopathies (sexual precocity, gigantism, etc)

McCune-Albright syndrome

38

cellular fibrous stroma; irregular shaped trabeculae of woven bone (chinese script writing); skull and jaw lesions mature differently

fibrous dysplasia

39

african-american females; mandibular anterior area, asymptomatic; radiolucent to mixed appearance

periapical cemental dysplasia

40

F>M; whites>blacks; posterior mandible; solitary; asymptomatic

focal cemento-osseous dysplasia

41

adult black females; often symmetric involvement of all four quadrants

florid cemento-osseous dysplasia

42

Neoplasm of fibro-osseous differentiation; amount of cementum-like and osseous-like is variable from lesion to lesion and can be used to determine the terminology

ossifying fibroma

43

F>M; adults; mandibular molar-premolar area; typically an asymptomatic swelling

ossifying fibroma

44

unilocular; varying degrees of opacity; bowing of inferior cortex

ossifying fibroma

45

benign tumor of compact or cancellous bone; predominantly restricted to the bones of the craniofacial skeleton; may occur on the surface (periosteal) or within medullary bone (endosteal)

osteoma

46

young adults; asymptomatic; most commonly affect the mandible or condyle; circumscribed, sclerotic mass; sinus lesions- sinusitis, headache, exopthalmos

osteoma

47

autosomal dominant condition characterized by colorectal polyps (adenomatous), osteomas, epidermoid cysts of the skin, and desmoid tumors; chief significance lies in the potential for adenocarcinoma of the colon

gardner syndrome

48

osteomas, particularly of the jaws and bones of the skull; epidermoid cysts; multiple odontomas and impacted, supernumerary teeth

gardner syndrome

49

Without appropriate treatment of gardner syndrome, the incidence of colorectal carcinoma approaches _% in the elderly

100

50

Benign lesion of bone arising from osteoblasts; significant radiographic and histopathologic similarities with cementoblastoma

osteoblastoma

51

M

osteoblastoma

52

odontogenic neoplasm; probably the only true neoplasm of cementum; many similarities to osteoblastoma, warranting discussion with bone pathology

cementoblastoma

53

mandibular molar region; variable pain; expansile; calcified mass with radiolucent rim associated with the root of a tooth

cementoblastoma

54

similar to osteoblastoma, but fused to the tooth root; sheets or trabeculae of mineralized material; uncalcified matrix arranged in radiating columns at the periphery

cementoblastoma

55

malignancy of mesenchymal cells that are characterized by the ability to produce osteoid or bone; most common malignant tumor of bone; increased prevalence associated with Paget's disease or previous radiation

osteosarcoma

56

M>F; avg. age 33 for jaw lesions; most occur in the area of the knee; swelling, pain, parasthesia, loosening of teeth; variable radiographic appearance; spiking root resorption; "sunburst or sunray" appearance; early widening of PDL

osteosarcoma

57

Osteosarcoma: Direct production of _ by mesenchymal cells

osteoid

58

variant of osteosarcoma that arises from the surface of bone; much better prognosis than intramedullary osteosarcoma; parosteal and periosteal trypes

peripheral (juxtacortical) osteosarcoma

59

malignant tumor of cartilage formation; about half as common as osteosarcoma; rarely affects the jaws

chondrosarcoma

60

M=F; avg. age ?; painless mass or swelling; separation or loosening of teeth; poorly defined radiolucency; scattered radiopaque flecks; may see the sunburst pattern

chondrosarcoma

61

controversial lesion of bone, probably neuroectodermal in origin; distinct genetic translocation - t(11;22); uncommon tumor of the jaws

ewing's sarcoma

62

M>F; children and adolescents; swelling with intermittent pain; parasthesia and loosening of teeth; lytic bone destruction with ill-defined margins; "onion-skin" periosteal reaction; fever, leukocytosis; "blue cell tumor"

ewings sarcoma

63

most common malignancy involving bone; hematogenous spread; uncommon in the jaws?; breast, lung, thyroid, prostate, and kidney

metastatic tumors to the jaws

64

older patients; mandible>maxilla; pain, swelling, loosening of teeth, parasthesia; may mimic periodontal disease; moth-eaten radiographic appearance; breast and prostate may show mixed radiolucent/opaque pattern

metastatic tumors to the jaws