Musculoskeletal Flashcards Preview

Dental Pathology > Musculoskeletal > Flashcards

Flashcards in Musculoskeletal Deck (71):
1

hereditary disorder of bone growth; mutation of FGFR3; impaired maturation of cartilage that affects all bones; major cause of dwarfism

achondroplasia

2

short stature; shortened proximal extremities; bowed legs; normal torso length; large head to body size; lordotic posture (excessive inward curvature of lumbar vertebrae)

achondroplasia

3

heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders; mutations in either the COL1A1 or COL1A2 genes, which guide type 1 collagen formation

osteogenesis imperfecta

4

most common and least severe form of osteogenesis imperfecta; opalescent teeth

type 1

5

most severe form of osteogenesis imperfecta

type 2

6

most severe form beyond perinatal period of osteogenesis imperfecta

type 3

7

form of osteogenesis imperfecta where blue sclera fade with age

type 4

8

cortical bone appears attenuated; reduced bone matrix production; bone architecture remains immature throughout life, with woven bone failing to transform to lamellar bone

osteogenesis imperfecta

9

treatment for osteogenesis imperfecta

bisphosphonate therapy

10

hereditary disorder characterized by increased bone density; secondary to defect in osteoclastic function; thickening of cortical bone and sclerosis of cancellous bone

osteopetrosis

11

which form of osteopetrosis?: normocytic anemia; symptoms secondary to cranial nerve pressure; pathologic fracture; skull deformities, hypertelorism; delayed tooth eruption; autosomal recessive

infantile (malignant) form

12

which form of osteopetrosis?: milder, typically detected upon routine radiograph; no anemia; no cranial nerve compression; uncommon pathologic fracture; osteomyelitis; autosomal dominant

adult (benign)

13

numerous osteoclasts; lack of Howship's lacunae; dense bone formation

osteopetrosis

14

porous bones, reduced bone mass resulting in increased bone fragility; can by primary or secondary to a variety of conditions; most common: senile, post-menopausal

osteoporosis

15

which demographic is most prone to osteoporosis?

caucasian females

16

fractures of vertebrae, pelvis, femur; kyphosis (overcurvature of thoracic vertebrae, hunchback)

osteoporosis

17

disease of bone characterized by abnormal resorption and deposition of bone; unknown etiology; possible viral etiology; recent gene mutations have been identified

pagets disease of bone

18

older individuals; monostotic or polyostotic; thickened, enlarged, and weakened bones; often painful

pagets disease

19

maxilla>mandible; enlarged alveolar ridges; may see spacing of the teeth

pagets disease

20

early - decreased radiodensity and altered trabeculation; later - patchy, sclerotic bone (cotton wool); hypercementosis

pagets disease

21

increased serum alkaline phosphatase; normal calcium and phosphorous levels; elevated urinary hydroxyproline

pagets disease

22

osteoblastic formation and osteoclastic resorption of bone; basophilic reversal lines (mosaic or jigsaw pattern)

pagets disease

23

... develops in about 1% of pagets disease patients

osteosarcoma

24

defective mineralization of bone matrix; due to vitamin D deficiency

rickets and osteomalacia

25

in infancy/childhood; bowing of legs; Rachitic rosary (prominence of the costochondral junction)

rickets

26

in adults; diffuse skeletal pain; susceptibility to bone fracture

osteomalacia

27

one of the most common pathologies affect bone; causes- traumatic, stress (repetitive loading), pathologic (in an area of existing bone disease)

fractures

28

a bony ... bridges the fracture

callus

29

inflammation of the bone and marrow; implies infection (most often bacterial); entry of microorganisms (hematogenous spread, extension from a contiguous site, compound fracture)

osteomyelitis

30

can be acute or chronic; sequestrum (a detached, necrotic bone fragment) formation

osteomyelitis

31

developmental process secondary to a postzygotic mutation in the GNAS 1 gene; typically affects children during the first or second decade

fibrous dysplasia

32

slowly growing enlargement of a single bone; frequently involves the jaws; "ground glass" radiograph

fibrous dysplasia (monostotic)

33

typically involves the long bones; pathologic fracture, pain, deformity; cafe au lait pigmentation

fibrous dysplasia (jaffe-lichtenstein syndrome)

34

polyostotic features; cafe au lait pigmentation; multiple endocrinopathies (sexual precocity, gigantism, etc)

fibrous dysplasia (mccune-albright syndrome)

35

cellular fibrous stroma; irregular shaped trabeculae of woven bone (Chinese script); skull and jaw lesions mature differently

fibrous dysplasia

36

most common primary malignancy of bone (excluding hematopoetic malignancies); tumor cells produce bone matrix (osteoid)

osteosarcoma

37

75% of cases occur before age 20; most frequently affect the distal femur/proximal tibia (knee area); fills medullary cavity, breaks through cortex; hematogenous spread to lung

osteosarcoma

38

which variant of tumor with chromosomal translocation t(11;22)?: shows neural differentiation

PNET

39

which variant of tumor with chromosomal translocation t(11;22)?: undifferentiated

Ewing sarcoma

40

children usually age 10-15; painful, enlarging mass; classic "onion skin" periosteal proliferation on radiographs

Ewing sarcoma/PNET

41

most common form of skeletal malignancy; in adults, over 75% of bone metastases originate from cancers of: prostate, breast, kidney, lung

metastatic disease

42

most common bones involved: vertebrae, pelvis, ribs, skull; radiographic appearance may be radiolucent, radiopaque, or mixed

metastatic disease

43

degenerative joint disease; often an inevitable part of aging, but biomechanical factors (weight, strength) contribute

osteoarthritis

44

progressive erosion of articular cartilage; increased joint friction; "joint mice" (dislodged fragments of bone and cartilage); osteophytes (excess bone growth at the edges); inflammation is secondary to degeneration

osteoarthritis

45

chronic, non-suppurative inflammatory destruction of the joints; unknown etiology; considered an autoimmune condition; associated with certain HLA types

rheumatoid arthritis

46

RA-attack against the synovial membrane

synovitis

47

RA-reactive fibroblastic and macrophage proliferation

pannus

48

collagenase/protease destruction of cartilage and bone with subsequent joint deformation

rheumatoid arthritis

49

25-35 years, with males younger; variable involvement from mild involvement to severe pain and deformity (anvil shape); predominantly affects the small joints of the hands and feet; rheumatoid nodules; TMJ involvement about 75%

rheumatoid arthritis

50

elevated rheumatoid factor; antinuclear antibodies; elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate; possible anemia

RA

51

hyperplasia of synovial lining cells; hyperemia, edema, mixed perivascular infiltrate; rheumatoid nodules

RA

52

hematogenous spread, traumatic implantation, or direct (adjacent) spread of microorganisms; bacterial infections usually cause an acute suppurative arthritis

infectious arthritis

53

predisposing factors (immunodeficiency, joint trauma, IV drug abuse); gonococci, staph, strep, H influenzae; salmonella occurs in patients with sickle cell disease

infectious arthritis

54

episodes of acute arthritis from precipitation of urates into the joints and soft tissues; increases uric acid in blood

gout

55

chronic gout is associated with the development of ..., leading to chronic renal failure and death in 20% of those affected

nephropathy

56

tophi=large aggregates of urate cyrstals and surrounding granulomatous inflammation; big toe is affected in 90% of cases

gout

57

3 major syndromes: progressive muscular atrophy; progressive bulbar palsy; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease)

motor neuron disease

58

motor neuron disease: childhood onset; progressive limb weakness and sensory disturbances; facial muscles spared

progressive muscular atrophy

59

motor neuron disease: children and young adults; sensory perceptions normal; begins with difficulty in articulation or swallowing

progressive bulbar palsy

60

motor neuron disease: middle age; difficulty walking; spastic quadriparesis; normal senses; increased tendon reflexes; fasciculation of the shoulders and thighs; muscle atrophy and dysfunction of muscles controlled by medulla oblongata

ALS

61

... agents may slow the progression of ALS

antiglutamate

62

inflammatory disorder of skin and skeletal muscle; it is characterized by a distinctive skin rash that may accompany or precede the onset of muscle disease

dermatomyositis

63

classic rash- discoloration of the upper eyelids and periorbital edema; muscle weakness; dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)

dermatomyositis

64

perifascicular atrophy and inflammation; treatment consists of immunosuppressive therapy

dermatomyositis

65

absence of dystrophin; low IQ, mental retardation; progressive loss of intercostal muscles; respiratory difficulty and death from pneumonia

duchenne muscular dystrophy

66

abnormal dystrophin; progresses more slowly than Duchenne, with symptoms developing in later childhood or adolescence; near normal life span

becker muscular dystrophy

67

autoimmune disease affecting the Ach receptors of muscle fibers; results in progressive weakness of skeletal muscle; often associated with hyperplasia or thymoma of the thymus gland

myasthenia gravis

68

progressive muscle weakness, first apparent in the small muscles of the head and neck; inability to focus, ptosis, diplopia; difficulty chewing, dysphagia, dysarthria, repeated contraction leads to progressive weakness

myasthenia gravis

69

degeneration of muscle fibers; elevated serum Ach receptor antibody levels; improved muscle strength after injection of edrophonium

myasthenia gravis

70

malignant tumor of skeletal muscle; 3 types: embryonal, alveolar, pleomorphic

rhabdomyosarcoma

71

potentially rapidly growing, infiltrative mass; orbit, nasal cavity, nasopharynx

rhabdomyosarcoma