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Flashcards in Male Gentials Deck (29):
1

abnormal urethral opening

hypo- and epispadias

2

the orifice is on the ventral surface of the penis

hypospadias

3

the orifice is on the dorsal surface of the penis

epispadias

4

congenital anomaly of penis: orifice of prepuce is too small to permit normal retraction; most often result of repeated infections causing scarring of preputial ring

phimosis

5

congential anomaly of penis: when a stenotic prepuce is forcibly retracted over the glans penis, compromising circulation

paraphimosis

6

inflammation of the glands and prepuce; caused by a wide variety of organisms; poor local hygiene in uncircumcised men (smegma acts as local irritant); distal penis is red, swollen, tender

balanitis (non specific)

7

benign penile tumor caused by HPV types 6 and 11; papillary pattern and koilocytes

condyloma acuminatum

8

Bowen's disease; strong association with HPV 16; gray white thicken plaque with ulceration and crusting

squamous cell carcinoma in-situ

9

HPV 16 and 18 association; uncommon in US; circumcision confers some protection

invasive squamous cell carcinoma

10

failure of descent of testes into scrotum; in about 1% of 1 yr old boys; may result in infertility; increased risk of cancer; the testis is exposed to trauma

cryptorchidism

11

inflammation in which epididymis is bigger than testes is often related to UTI caused by which organisms in sexually active males

chlamydia trachomatis and neisseria gonorrhoeae

12

accumulation of serous fluid in the tunica vaginalis with scrotal enlargement

hydrocele

13

twisting of the spermatic cord cuts off the venous drainage of the testis; a urologic emergency; sudden onset of severe testicular pain; results from increased testicular mobility

testicular torsion

14

presents a painless testicular enlargement; 95% are germ cell tumors

testicular tumors

15

germ cell precursor: gonadal differentiation (40-50 Y)

seminoma

16

germ cell precursor: totipotential differentiation (nonseminoma) (20-30 Y)

embryonal ca (undifferentiated)

17

embryonal ca: trophoblastic differentiation (20-30 Y) hCG+

choriocarcinoma

18

embryonal ca: yolk sac differentiation (less than 3 Y) AFP+

yolk sac tumor

19

embryonal ca: somatic differentiation (20-30 Y)

teratoma

20

most common germ cell tumor; bulky mass; lobulated; homogenous; no hemorrhage or necrosis

seminoma

21

more aggressive tumors; smaller than seminoma; poorly demarcated with areas of hemorrhage and necrosis

embryonal carcinoma

22

most common testicular tumor of infancy; non-encapsulated, homogenous, yellow-white mucinous appearance; produce alpha-feto protein

yolk sac tumor

23

highly malignant tumor composed of cytotrophoblastic and syncytiotrophoblastic cells; rare; usually small; hemorrhage and necrosis common; tumor cells are hCG positive

choriocarcinoma

24

components of more than one germ layer: mesodermal, ectodermal, endodermal derivatives; any age; large, cystic and cartilagenous tumors

teratoma

25

prostatitis with no history of recurrent UTI

chronic abacterial prostatitis

26

extremely common in men over 50; stromal and epithelial hyperplasia creating discrete nodules usually in the periurethral region; can compress urethra; related to action of androgens

nodular hyperplasia (benign prostatic hyperplasia)

27

frequency, nocturia, difficulty starting and stopping urination; predisposes to bladder infections; common cause of prostate specific antigen, therapy: 5alpha reductase inhibitors and surgery

nodular hyperplasia (benign prostatic hyperplasia)

28

most common cancer in men; 70% arise in posterior portion of peripheral zone of gland; osteoblastic vertebral lesions are pathognomonic

prostatic adenocarcinoma

29

small glands lined by single layer of cells (loss of basal layer); high-grade PIN is precursor lesion

prostatic adenocarcinoma