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Flashcards in Female Genital/Breast Deck (54):
1

pap smear credited with reduction of which cancer?

cervical carcinoma

2

most important agent in cervical oncogenesis

HPV

3

low risk HPV serotypes

6,11

4

high risk HPV serotypes

16,18

5

HPV interferes with which tumor suppressor gene?

p53

6

which quadrivalent vaccine confers immunity to HPV types 16 & 18 (70% of cervical cancer) and 6 & 11 (90% of condyloma acuminatum)

gardasil

7

cervical carcinoma preceded by precancerous (dysplastic) lesion

cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

8

peak incidence of cervical carcinoma

40-45 years

9

"genital warts", sexually transmitted and benign, multiple, HPV types 6 & 11

condyloma acuminatum

10

STD caused by the spirochete treponema pallidum; main diagnostic tests: VDRL and RPR

syphilis

11

presence of a chancre at the site of initial inoculation; small papule which enlarges into a painless ulcer with well-defined margins and clean moist base

primary syphilis

12

generalized lymphadenopathy and a variety of mucocutaneous lesions; lesions can be maculopapular, scaly or pustular; involvement of palms and soles common; typically within 2 months of resolution of the chancre

secondary syphilis

13

usually after a latent period of 5 yrs or more; 3 categories: cardiovascular, neuro, benign; gummas are focal granulomatous lesions that can occur in multiple organs

tertiary syphilis

14

common STD, purulent cervicitis typically develops 2-7 days after exposure; vaginal discharge, painful intercourse, dysuria; easily treated with antibiotics

gonorrhea

15

nongonococcal cervicitis; most commonly reported bacterial STD; caused by a small G-

chlamydia (c. trachomatis)

16

most common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge; thin, milky vaginal discharge, foul fishy odour; gardenella vaginalis

bacterial vaginosis

17

eukaryotic organism, parasitic protozoa, STD, burning, itching, malodorous vaginal discharge, can usually be seen on PAP smear

trichomonas vaginalis

18

most common vaginal and cervical fungal infection; predominantly as yeast buds and forms pseudohyphae

candida

19

most common in patients using intrauterine contraceptive devices

actinomyces

20

ground glass nuclei, eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions

herpes

21

both intranuclear (basophilic) and cytoplasmic inclusions

cytomegalovirus

22

pelvic pain, adnexal tenderness, fever, vaginal discharge, may induce formation of tubo-ovarian abscess/pyosalpinx; oophoritis, salpingitis; gonococci and chlamydia

pelvic inflammatory disease

23

also called Stein-Leventhal syndrome; numerous cystic follicles; enlarged ovaries twice their normal size

polycystic ovarian disease

24

the presence of glands or endometrial stroma in an abnormal location outside uterus; a disorder of reproductive years; responds to hormonal stimulation

endometriosis

25

common cause of abnormal bleeding; linked to prolonged estrogen stimulation

endometrial hyperplasia

26

most common invasive carcinoma of the female genital tract; predominately a disease of postmenopausal women; "post-menopausal bleeding"

endometrial carcinoma

27

tumor of smooth muscle; common during reproductive years; may induce spontaneous aportion

leiomyoma

28

malignant counterpart of leiomyoma with necrosis

leiomyosarcoma

29

second most common cancer of the female genital tract: 3 % of all cancers in women

ovarian cancer

30

account for a disproportionate number of fatal cancers due to presentation at late stage; often asymptomatic until late stages; elevations in CA-125

ovarian cancer

31

surface epithelial tumor; cystic filled with clear fluid; can be benign

serous tumors

32

malignant serous tumor

serous cystadenocarcinoma

33

surface epithelial tumor: closely resemble serous counterparts; 80% are benign

mucinous tumors

34

germ cell tumors: "dermoid cyst"; mature and immature; may contain elements of all 3 germ layers

teratoma

35

developmental disorder: may result in supernumerary nipples

milkline remnants

36

developmental disorder: implications in breast carcinoma

accessory axillary breast tissue

37

developmental disorder: may be clinically confused with inversion resulting from carcinoma and/or inflammation

congenital inversion of nipple

38

suspicious findings in mammography

densities, calcifications, nipple-inversion

39

associated with lactation; breast vulnerable due to fissures induced by nursing; staph and strep species; confusion with inflammatory carcinoma

acute mastitis

40

erythema, pain, fever, infiltration by neutrophils, necrosis possible

acute mastitis

41

history of trauma or surgery; presents as painless palpable mass; possible confusion with breast carcinoma

fat necrosis

42

stromal tumor: most common benign tumor of female breast; occur in reproductive period; size can fluctuate through menstrual cycle; abnormal density and occasionally calcified

fibroadenoma

43

stromal tumor: "leaf-like"; occur in older age group; most present as palpable masses; high grade lesions behave in malignant manner

phyllodes tumor

44

benign, non-proliferative changes NOT associated with increased risk of carcinoma

fibrocystic change

45

most common malignancy in women; 2nd leading cause of cancer death in women

carcinoma of the breast

46

1/4 of familial breast cancers attributed to mutations in ...

BRCA1 and BRCA2

47

major risk factor of sporadic breast cancer

hormone exposure (estrogen)

48

all carcinomas are thought to arise from ...

the terminal duct lobular unit

49

1/2 of mammographically detected cancers; malignant cells limited to ducts and lobules by basement membrane

ductal carcinoma in situ

50

does not produce mammographic findings; most cases will proceed to infiltrating carcinoma; loss of E-cadherin expression

lobular carcinoma in situ

51

large tumors may be fixed to chest wall; lymphatic blockage may induce "peau d'orange" appearance; by the time carcinoma is palpable 1/2 of patients will have axillary lymph node involvement

infiltrating carcinoma

52

involvement of dermal lymphatics =

inflammatory carcinoma

53

drug that inhibits estrogen receptor; for ER, PR positive; used as adjuvant therapy in estrogen receptor positive tumors

tamoxifen

54

drug for Her2 positive cancers; Her2/neu: member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family; overexpression of Her2/neu seen in some breast and ovarian cancers

trastuzamab