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Flashcards in Respiratory Pathology Deck (80):
1

the "common cold", usually viral with bacterial infection developing thereafter; may involve pharynx, tonsils, bronchi?

rhinitis

2

allergic from of rhinitis?

hay fever

3

catarrhal discharge; mucopurulent discharge secondary to bacterial infection; recurrences may lead to polyp formation?

rhinitis

4

common infection secondary to breakdown in the normal secretion elimination system; predisposing factors: typically upper viral respiratory infection?

sinusitis

5

bacteria associated with sinusitis?

s. pneumoniae and h. influenzae

6

headache, fever, facial pain, malaise; nasal discharge; maxillary sinusitis may mimic a toothache?

sinusitis

7

treatment for acute sinusitis?

amoxicillin or appropriate antibiotic

8

treatment for chronic sinusitis?

sinus surgery

9

necrotizing granulomatous process of unknown etiology, classically affects upper airway, lungs, kidneys; epitaxis, pain, nasal obstruction; later signs include ulceration and destruction of adjacent tissue or structures; any organ may be involved?

Wegener's granulomatosis

10

oral lesions: large, chronic ulcers, "strawberry gums"?

Wegener's granulomatosis

11

subepithelial hemorrhage; poorly formed granulomas; scattered giant cells; vasculitis?

Wegener's granulomatosis

12

in diagnosis of Wegener's, look for ...?

c-ANCA

13

treatment of Wegener's?

prednisone and cyclophosphamide

14

aggressive, destructive process of T lymphocytes; adults; nasal stuffiness, epitaxis; deep necrotic ulcerations; may progress to palatal perforations?

extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type

15

necrosis and angiocentric arrangement of atypical inflammatory cells?

extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type

16

benign but aggressive vascular neoplasm of the nasopharynx; almost exclusively of male adolescents; resemblance to nasal turbinates?

nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

17

nasal obstruction, epitaxis; anterior bowing of the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus?

nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

18

dense fibrous connective tissue with myofibroblasts; numerous, variably-sized, thin-walled vessels?

nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

19

benign, papillary overgrowth of epithelium primarily on nasal septum?

papilloma

20

benign but aggressive neoplasm of the sinuses; high rate of recurrence and destruction with possible invasion of the orbit and cranial vault; inward growth of squamous epithelium?

inverted papilloma

21

malignancy of the nasopharyngeal mucosa that is more common in parts of Asia; associated with Epstein-Barr virus, vit. C deficiency; diets high in salted fish (nitrosamines)?

nasopharyngeal carcinoma

22

enlarged cervical nodes usually the first sign; unilateral serous otitis media and hearing loss?

nasopharyngeal carcinoma

23

common; secondary to viruses, diphtheria, cig smoking; may result in obstruction

laryngitis

24

"croup"; under age of 3; upper respiratory viral infection; loud breathing and cough with difficulty in breathing?

acute laryngotracheobronchitis

25

tumors; overgrowths of edematous inflammatory tissue, "Singer's nodes"

polyps

26

tumors; HPV related, single or multiple (children)

papillomas

27

associated with smoking, asbestos; ulcerated, fungated; hemoptysis, increasing hoarseness

squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx

28

heavy and wet lungs; development of pneumonia; left sided heart disease, allergies, CNS disorders

pulmonary congestion and edema

29

most common preventable cause of hospital death; deep vein thrombosis; dyspnea w/ or w/o shock or sudden death, pain, hemoptysis, acute or chronic cor pulmonale?

pulmonary embolism

30

large embolus at bifurcation of the pulmonary artery?

saddle embolus

31

appears as wedge shaped area of necrosis?

small or multiple emboli

32

arteriosclerosis or increased pulmonary vascular blood flow associated with pulmonary hypertension; pulmonary hypertension secondary to mitral stenosis, fibrosis, COPD; death secondary to right-sided heart failure

pulmonary vascular sclerosis

33

airless lung, appearing shrunken, red-blue, rubbery and non-crepitate?

atelectasis

34

infant (neonatal) respiratory distress syndrome (hyaline membrane disease); secondary to over-sedation of the mother, aspiration of blood or amniotic fluid, birth injuries, prematurity

primary atelectasis

35

the fundamental defect of hyaline membrane disease (RDS) is ...?

deficiency of pulmonary surfactant

36

hyaline membranes and necrosis of alveolar walls?

hyaline membrane disease of the newborn

37

main treatment of hyaline membrane disease of newborn is ...?

prevention

38

complete airway obstruction; resorption of air distal to the obstruction?

secondary atelectasis (collapse), obstructive (resorption) type

39

mechanical collapse due to external pressure; entire lung or portion?

secondary atelectasis (collapse), compression type

40

adult version of hyaline membrane disease; secondary to alveolar epithelium and endothelial damage; increase in permeability leading to fluid in the septa and alveolar sacs; hyaline membrane formation

acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

41

resistance to expiration

COPD

42

examples of COPD

emphysema; chronic bronchitis; bronchiectasis; asthma

43

progressive dyspnea; reduced recoil; cyanosis; weight loss; hypoxic brain damage; bronchopneumonia; cor pulmonale

COPD

44

enlargement and destruction of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles?

emphysema

45

affecting respiratory bronchioles of the upper lobes (strongly associated with smoking)

centrilobular (centriacinar) emphysema

46

affects respiratory bronchioles and distal alveoli (alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency)

panacinar emyphsema

47

persistent cough with copious sputum for at least 3 months for 2 consecutive years; common in smokers and smog-ridden cities; inflammation, fibrosis and narrowing of bronchioles?

chronic bronchitis

48

hypertrophy of mucous glands, metaplastic formation of mucin-secreting goblet cells in the surface epithelium of bronchi; chronic inflammation; late fibrosis?

chronic bronchitis

49

some chronic bronchitis patients develop significant ... with outflow obstruction?

COPD

50

many patients will have both chronic bronchitis and ...

emphysema

51

abnormal, permanent and irregular dilation of bronchi associated with superimposed, necrotizing infection; typically secondary to other pulmonary diseases

bronchiectasis

52

especially before age 20; cyanosis, coughing, copious purulent and/or bloody sputum, fever, digital clubbing?

bronchiectasis

53

chronic inflammatory disorder that causes sudden episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightening and cough; increased responsiveness to stimuli-bronchoconstriction, inflammation, mucous secretion

bronchial asthma

54

IgE mediated, type 1 hypersensitivity broncial asthma

atopic

55

bronchial asthma triggered by respiratory viral infections, which probably lower the threshold of the vagal receptors of the irritants?

non-atopic

56

bronchial asthma with leukotriene production?

drug-induced

57

curshmanns spirals-accumulation of epithelial cells and mucous and charcot-leyden crystals-granules of eosinophils seen in sputum

bronchial asthma

58

prolonged bronchial asthmatic attack that can last days or weeks, sometimes resulting in death?

status asthmaticus

59

entire lobe; severe fibropurulent reaction with massive edema; bacterial pneumonia

lobar pneumonia

60

four discrete stages of lobar pneumonia

congestion; red hepatization; gray hepatization; resolution

61

patchy distribution within lobes; multilobar and bilateral; neutrophil rich exudate; bacterial pneumonia

bronchopneumonia

62

which pneumonia carries a better prognosis: community or hospital acquired

community

63

mycobacterium tuberculosis?

tuberculosis

64

ghon complex; low grade fever, night sweats, fatigue (secondary tuberculosis); weight loss (consumption); chronic bloody cough?

tuberculosis

65

diffuse dissemination seen in the immune compromised patient?

miliary tuberculosis

66

necrotizing granulomatous inflammation; multinucleated giant cells; demonstrated by acid fast method?

tuberculosis

67

histoplasma capsulatum; endemic to mississippi and ohio river valleys; spores in soil contaminated with bird or bat droppings?

histoplasmosis

68

calcified hilar nodes; acute-flu like; granulomatous inflammation; 1-2 micron yeasts in macrophages; silver stain or PAS

histoplasmosis

69

T or F: for acute histoplasmosis, no treatment is usually necessary

T

70

treatment of choice for mild cases or as maintenance therapy of histoplasmosis

itraconazole

71

#1 cause of lung abscess?

aspiration

72

secondary to aspiration or complication of pneumonia, obstruction, septic emboli, trauma; cough with foul smelling mucus, fever, pain

lung abscess

73

idiopathic multisystem granulomatous process; improper degradation of antigenic material; effects lungs, lymph nodes, skin, eyes, and salivary glands

sarcoidosis

74

variable onset; dyspnea; dry cough; fever, malaise; fatigue, athralgia; lymphadenopathy?

sarcoidosis

75

granulomatous inflammation; langhans or foreign body giant cell; schaumann bodies; asteroid bodies

sarcoidosis

76

elevated angiotensin converting enzyme; kveim test

sarcoidosis

77

#1 fatal cancer in US (associated with smoking, asbestos, radioactive ores)

bronchogenic carcinoma

78

histologic subtypes of bronchogenic carcinoma

squamous cell; adenocarcinoma, undifferentiated

79

most common subtype of bronchogenic carcinoma

adenocarcinoma

80

spread to hilar and scalene nodes, then to adrenals, liver, brain, bone and kidney; weight loss, chest pain, dyspnea, hemoptysis; paraneoplastic syndromes; many secondary diseases associated

bronchogenic carcinoma