Flashcards in Respiratory Pathology Deck (80)
the "common cold", usually viral with bacterial infection developing thereafter; may involve pharynx, tonsils, bronchi?
allergic from of rhinitis?
catarrhal discharge; mucopurulent discharge secondary to bacterial infection; recurrences may lead to polyp formation?
common infection secondary to breakdown in the normal secretion elimination system; predisposing factors: typically upper viral respiratory infection?
bacteria associated with sinusitis?
s. pneumoniae and h. influenzae
headache, fever, facial pain, malaise; nasal discharge; maxillary sinusitis may mimic a toothache?
treatment for acute sinusitis?
amoxicillin or appropriate antibiotic
treatment for chronic sinusitis?
necrotizing granulomatous process of unknown etiology, classically affects upper airway, lungs, kidneys; epitaxis, pain, nasal obstruction; later signs include ulceration and destruction of adjacent tissue or structures; any organ may be involved?
oral lesions: large, chronic ulcers, "strawberry gums"?
subepithelial hemorrhage; poorly formed granulomas; scattered giant cells; vasculitis?
in diagnosis of Wegener's, look for ...?
treatment of Wegener's?
prednisone and cyclophosphamide
aggressive, destructive process of T lymphocytes; adults; nasal stuffiness, epitaxis; deep necrotic ulcerations; may progress to palatal perforations?
extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type
necrosis and angiocentric arrangement of atypical inflammatory cells?
extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type
benign but aggressive vascular neoplasm of the nasopharynx; almost exclusively of male adolescents; resemblance to nasal turbinates?
nasal obstruction, epitaxis; anterior bowing of the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus?
dense fibrous connective tissue with myofibroblasts; numerous, variably-sized, thin-walled vessels?
benign, papillary overgrowth of epithelium primarily on nasal septum?
benign but aggressive neoplasm of the sinuses; high rate of recurrence and destruction with possible invasion of the orbit and cranial vault; inward growth of squamous epithelium?
malignancy of the nasopharyngeal mucosa that is more common in parts of Asia; associated with Epstein-Barr virus, vit. C deficiency; diets high in salted fish (nitrosamines)?
enlarged cervical nodes usually the first sign; unilateral serous otitis media and hearing loss?
common; secondary to viruses, diphtheria, cig smoking; may result in obstruction
"croup"; under age of 3; upper respiratory viral infection; loud breathing and cough with difficulty in breathing?
tumors; overgrowths of edematous inflammatory tissue, "Singer's nodes"
tumors; HPV related, single or multiple (children)
associated with smoking, asbestos; ulcerated, fungated; hemoptysis, increasing hoarseness
squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx
heavy and wet lungs; development of pneumonia; left sided heart disease, allergies, CNS disorders
pulmonary congestion and edema
most common preventable cause of hospital death; deep vein thrombosis; dyspnea w/ or w/o shock or sudden death, pain, hemoptysis, acute or chronic cor pulmonale?
large embolus at bifurcation of the pulmonary artery?
appears as wedge shaped area of necrosis?
small or multiple emboli
arteriosclerosis or increased pulmonary vascular blood flow associated with pulmonary hypertension; pulmonary hypertension secondary to mitral stenosis, fibrosis, COPD; death secondary to right-sided heart failure
pulmonary vascular sclerosis
airless lung, appearing shrunken, red-blue, rubbery and non-crepitate?
infant (neonatal) respiratory distress syndrome (hyaline membrane disease); secondary to over-sedation of the mother, aspiration of blood or amniotic fluid, birth injuries, prematurity
the fundamental defect of hyaline membrane disease (RDS) is ...?
deficiency of pulmonary surfactant
hyaline membranes and necrosis of alveolar walls?
hyaline membrane disease of the newborn
main treatment of hyaline membrane disease of newborn is ...?
complete airway obstruction; resorption of air distal to the obstruction?
secondary atelectasis (collapse), obstructive (resorption) type
mechanical collapse due to external pressure; entire lung or portion?
secondary atelectasis (collapse), compression type
adult version of hyaline membrane disease; secondary to alveolar epithelium and endothelial damage; increase in permeability leading to fluid in the septa and alveolar sacs; hyaline membrane formation
acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
resistance to expiration
examples of COPD
emphysema; chronic bronchitis; bronchiectasis; asthma
progressive dyspnea; reduced recoil; cyanosis; weight loss; hypoxic brain damage; bronchopneumonia; cor pulmonale
enlargement and destruction of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles?
affecting respiratory bronchioles of the upper lobes (strongly associated with smoking)
centrilobular (centriacinar) emphysema
affects respiratory bronchioles and distal alveoli (alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency)
persistent cough with copious sputum for at least 3 months for 2 consecutive years; common in smokers and smog-ridden cities; inflammation, fibrosis and narrowing of bronchioles?
hypertrophy of mucous glands, metaplastic formation of mucin-secreting goblet cells in the surface epithelium of bronchi; chronic inflammation; late fibrosis?
some chronic bronchitis patients develop significant ... with outflow obstruction?
many patients will have both chronic bronchitis and ...
abnormal, permanent and irregular dilation of bronchi associated with superimposed, necrotizing infection; typically secondary to other pulmonary diseases
especially before age 20; cyanosis, coughing, copious purulent and/or bloody sputum, fever, digital clubbing?
chronic inflammatory disorder that causes sudden episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightening and cough; increased responsiveness to stimuli-bronchoconstriction, inflammation, mucous secretion
IgE mediated, type 1 hypersensitivity broncial asthma
bronchial asthma triggered by respiratory viral infections, which probably lower the threshold of the vagal receptors of the irritants?
bronchial asthma with leukotriene production?
curshmanns spirals-accumulation of epithelial cells and mucous and charcot-leyden crystals-granules of eosinophils seen in sputum
prolonged bronchial asthmatic attack that can last days or weeks, sometimes resulting in death?
entire lobe; severe fibropurulent reaction with massive edema; bacterial pneumonia
four discrete stages of lobar pneumonia
congestion; red hepatization; gray hepatization; resolution
patchy distribution within lobes; multilobar and bilateral; neutrophil rich exudate; bacterial pneumonia
which pneumonia carries a better prognosis: community or hospital acquired
ghon complex; low grade fever, night sweats, fatigue (secondary tuberculosis); weight loss (consumption); chronic bloody cough?
diffuse dissemination seen in the immune compromised patient?
necrotizing granulomatous inflammation; multinucleated giant cells; demonstrated by acid fast method?
histoplasma capsulatum; endemic to mississippi and ohio river valleys; spores in soil contaminated with bird or bat droppings?
calcified hilar nodes; acute-flu like; granulomatous inflammation; 1-2 micron yeasts in macrophages; silver stain or PAS
T or F: for acute histoplasmosis, no treatment is usually necessary
treatment of choice for mild cases or as maintenance therapy of histoplasmosis
#1 cause of lung abscess?
secondary to aspiration or complication of pneumonia, obstruction, septic emboli, trauma; cough with foul smelling mucus, fever, pain
idiopathic multisystem granulomatous process; improper degradation of antigenic material; effects lungs, lymph nodes, skin, eyes, and salivary glands
variable onset; dyspnea; dry cough; fever, malaise; fatigue, athralgia; lymphadenopathy?
granulomatous inflammation; langhans or foreign body giant cell; schaumann bodies; asteroid bodies
elevated angiotensin converting enzyme; kveim test
#1 fatal cancer in US (associated with smoking, asbestos, radioactive ores)
histologic subtypes of bronchogenic carcinoma
squamous cell; adenocarcinoma, undifferentiated
most common subtype of bronchogenic carcinoma