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Flashcards in GI Path Deck (72)
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1

a thin, noncanalized cord replaces a segement of esophagus; congenital abnormality

atresia

2

atresia is most commonly at or near ...

the tracheal bifurcation

3

aspiartion, suffocation, pneumonia, and severe fluid and electrolytes imbalances; congenital abnormality

fistula

4

herniation of the abdominal viscera into the thoracic cavity due to incomplete formation of the diaphargm; pulmonary hypoplasia; congenital abnormality

diaphragmatic hernia

5

herniation of the abdominal viscera into a ventral membranous sac due to incomplete closure of the abdominal musculature; congenital abnormality

omphalocele

6

gastric mucosa in esophagus; congenital abnormality

ectopia

7

a true diverticulum as a blind outpouching of the alimentary tract communicating with the lumen and includes all 3 layers; congenital abnormality

meckel diverticulum

8

hyperplasia of the pyloric muscularis propria; increased risk with Turner syndrome and trisomy 18; regurgitation, projectile, nonbilious vomiting after feeding; erythromycin and azithromycin exposure and increased incidence; congenital abnormality

pyloric stenosis

9

idiopathic ledge-like protrusions of mucosa that may cause obstruction; associated with GI reflux, chronic graft vs host disease, or blistering skin diseases; nonprogressive dysphagia; esophagus

esophageal mucosal webs

10

upper esophagus webs; iron deficiency anemia; glossitis; and cheilosis; increased risk of cancer

plummer vinson syndrome

11

"failure to relax"; incomplete lower esophageal sphincter relaxation; aperistalsis; dysphagia, difficulty in belching, and chest pain; increased risk of esophageal cancer

achalasia

12

distal esophageal inhibitory neuronal degeneration

primary achalasia

13

chagas disease, tyrpanosoma cruzi infection causing myenteric plexus destruction; diabetic autonomic neuropathy; inflitrative disorders; lesions of dorsal motor nuclei; down syndrome; sjogren or autoimmune thyroid disease

secondary achalasia

14

mucosal tears near the gastroesophageal junction; associated with severe retching or vomiting secondary to acute alcohol intoxication

mallory-weiss tears

15

herpes simplex virus particularly in immunocompromised and candidiasis

infectious esophagitis

16

adherent gray-white pseudomembranes covering esophageal mucosa

candidiasis

17

punched out ulcers

esophagitis, herpes virus

18

most common cause of esophagitis

reflux of gatric contents into the lower esophagus (GERD)

19

most common cause of GERD

lower esophageal sphincter relaxation

20

treatment of GERD

proton pump inhibitors

21

major complication of GERD

Barrett esophagus

22

a congested subepithelial and submucosal venous plexi within the distal esophagus and proximal stomach; cause of esophageal bleeding

esophageal varices

23

most common cause of esophageal varices

portal hypertension

24

portal hypertension, in cirrhotic patient, most commonly associated with ...

alcoholic liver disease

25

2nd most common cause of esophageal varices

hepatic schistosomiasis

26

a complication of GERD characterized by columnar metaplasia within the esophageal squamous mucosa; increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma

Barret esophagus

27

most common benign tumor of esophagus

leiomyoma

28

malignant tumors of esophagus

adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma

29

more than 1/2 of all esophageal cancers in US; most cases from Barret esophagus (obesity related GERD)

adenocarcinoma

30

decreased risk of esopharyngeal adenocarcinoma with ... due to gastric atrophy-->decreased acid secretion and reflux-->decreased Barret

Helicobacter pylori