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Flashcards in GI Path Deck (72):
1

a thin, noncanalized cord replaces a segement of esophagus; congenital abnormality

atresia

2

atresia is most commonly at or near ...

the tracheal bifurcation

3

aspiartion, suffocation, pneumonia, and severe fluid and electrolytes imbalances; congenital abnormality

fistula

4

herniation of the abdominal viscera into the thoracic cavity due to incomplete formation of the diaphargm; pulmonary hypoplasia; congenital abnormality

diaphragmatic hernia

5

herniation of the abdominal viscera into a ventral membranous sac due to incomplete closure of the abdominal musculature; congenital abnormality

omphalocele

6

gastric mucosa in esophagus; congenital abnormality

ectopia

7

a true diverticulum as a blind outpouching of the alimentary tract communicating with the lumen and includes all 3 layers; congenital abnormality

meckel diverticulum

8

hyperplasia of the pyloric muscularis propria; increased risk with Turner syndrome and trisomy 18; regurgitation, projectile, nonbilious vomiting after feeding; erythromycin and azithromycin exposure and increased incidence; congenital abnormality

pyloric stenosis

9

idiopathic ledge-like protrusions of mucosa that may cause obstruction; associated with GI reflux, chronic graft vs host disease, or blistering skin diseases; nonprogressive dysphagia; esophagus

esophageal mucosal webs

10

upper esophagus webs; iron deficiency anemia; glossitis; and cheilosis; increased risk of cancer

plummer vinson syndrome

11

"failure to relax"; incomplete lower esophageal sphincter relaxation; aperistalsis; dysphagia, difficulty in belching, and chest pain; increased risk of esophageal cancer

achalasia

12

distal esophageal inhibitory neuronal degeneration

primary achalasia

13

chagas disease, tyrpanosoma cruzi infection causing myenteric plexus destruction; diabetic autonomic neuropathy; inflitrative disorders; lesions of dorsal motor nuclei; down syndrome; sjogren or autoimmune thyroid disease

secondary achalasia

14

mucosal tears near the gastroesophageal junction; associated with severe retching or vomiting secondary to acute alcohol intoxication

mallory-weiss tears

15

herpes simplex virus particularly in immunocompromised and candidiasis

infectious esophagitis

16

adherent gray-white pseudomembranes covering esophageal mucosa

candidiasis

17

punched out ulcers

esophagitis, herpes virus

18

most common cause of esophagitis

reflux of gatric contents into the lower esophagus (GERD)

19

most common cause of GERD

lower esophageal sphincter relaxation

20

treatment of GERD

proton pump inhibitors

21

major complication of GERD

Barrett esophagus

22

a congested subepithelial and submucosal venous plexi within the distal esophagus and proximal stomach; cause of esophageal bleeding

esophageal varices

23

most common cause of esophageal varices

portal hypertension

24

portal hypertension, in cirrhotic patient, most commonly associated with ...

alcoholic liver disease

25

2nd most common cause of esophageal varices

hepatic schistosomiasis

26

a complication of GERD characterized by columnar metaplasia within the esophageal squamous mucosa; increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma

Barret esophagus

27

most common benign tumor of esophagus

leiomyoma

28

malignant tumors of esophagus

adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma

29

more than 1/2 of all esophageal cancers in US; most cases from Barret esophagus (obesity related GERD)

adenocarcinoma

30

decreased risk of esopharyngeal adenocarcinoma with ... due to gastric atrophy-->decreased acid secretion and reflux-->decreased Barret

Helicobacter pylori

31

alcohol and tobacco use, poverty, caustic esophageal injury, achalasia, tylosis, plummer-vinson, fruit/veggie deficiency, very hot beverages

squamous cell carcinoma

32

a mucosal inflammatory process; stomach

gastritis

33

gastritis in presence of neutrophils

acute

34

a diverse set of disorders marked by gastric injury or dysfunction with no inflammatory cells

gastropathy

35

causes of gastropathy

NSAID, alcohol, bile, stress induced injury

36

most common cause of chronic gastritis

H. pylori

37

enzyme the causes increase in pH and allows for survival of H. pylori

urease

38

mutation of which gene in H. pylori results in many different toxins

CagA

39

histopathologic features of H pylori gastritis

spiral shaped H. pylori, silver stain; neutrophils within epithelium/lamina propria; lymphoid aggregates, subepithelial plasma cells

40

complication of chronic gastritis; chronic mucosal ulceration affection duodenum/stomach; associated with H pylori, NSAIDs, smoking

peptic ulcer disease

41

multiple peptic ulcerations in the stomach, duodenum, and even jejunum owing to excess gastrin secretion by a tumor-->excess gastric acid production

Zollinger Ellison syndrome

42

giant cerebriform enlargement of the rugal folds due to epithelial hyperplasia; no inflammation; excessive growth factor; ex: Zollinger-Ellison

hypertrophic gastropathies

43

4 causes of gastric polyps

hyperplasia; inflammation; ectopia; neoplasia

44

most common polyps?

inflammatory or hyperplastic

45

risk of developing adenocarcinoma in gastric adenomas that are greater than ....

2 cm

46

distorted, irregular glands lined with epithelium demonstrating crowded, pleomorphic nuclei overlapping with losing of normal polarity; seen in gastric adenomas

epithelial dysplasia

47

most common malignancy of stomach

gastric adenocarcinoma

48

risk factors for gastric cancer:

H. pylori; host (genetic background); diet/habit (low vit. C, high salt/nitrate, smoking)

49

precursor conditions of gastric cancer

hypochlorhidia; atrophic body gastritis; intestinal metaplasia; dysplasia

50

mitotic figures

gastric adenocarcinoma

51

main difference between small and large intestine

large intestine has no villi

52

aggregate lymphoid nodules (peyers patches) found in...

ileum

53

defective absorption of fats, vitamins, proteins, carbs, electrolytes and minerals, and water; present as chronic diarrhea; steatorrhea as hallmark

malabsorption

54

most common disorders in US causing malabsorption

pancreatic insufficiency, celiac disease, crohn disease

55

an important cause of malabsorption and diarrhea following allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

intestinal graft vs host disease

56

an immune mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals; loss of villi

celiac disease

57

a chronic condition resulting from inappropriate mucosal immune activation

inflammatory bowl disease

58

2 disorders that comprise inflammatory bowl disease

ulcerative colitis; crohn disease

59

skip lesions; transmural inflammation; ulcerations, fissures

crohn disease

60

continuous colonic involvement beginning in rectum; pseudopolyps; ulcers

ulcerative colitis

61

result of immune response in IBD is production of ...

TNF

62

factors involved in IBD

luminal microbial antigens; genetic susceptibility; immune response; environmental triggers

63

skip lesions; aphthous ulcer as earliest lesion; anti-TNF antibodies for treatment

crohn disease

64

oral manifestations of crohn disease

lip swelling; linear ulcer/aphthous like ulcer (characteristic in vestibule)

65

non-caseating granulomatous inflammation (granuloma formation)

crohn disease

66

ulcers/pseudopolyps; limited to colon/rectum; bloody diarrhea and abdominal pain; no granuloma formation

ulcerative colitis

67

pyostomatitis vegetans (oral)

ulcerative colitis

68

most common malignancy of GI tract

adenocarcinoma of colon

69

low intake unabsorbable vegetable fiber and high intake of refined carbs and fat

increased rates of colorectal cancer

70

chemoprevention of colorectal cancer-->inhibtion of COX 2--->inhibition of epithelial proliferation

aspirin and NSAIDs

71

mutation of ... early in the neoplastic process in up to 80% of sporadic colon cancers

APC (adenomatous polyposis coli)

72

2 most important prognostic factors of adenocarcinoma of colon

depth of invasion and presence of lymph node metastases