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Flashcards in Hematologic Deck (59):
1

proliferation of normal lymphoid tissue in response to antigenic challenge; clinical- lymph node enlargement; may involve nodes (commonly the anterior cervical chain), Waldeyer's ring

lymphoid hyperplasia

2

bleeding disorder secondary to a genetic deficiency of clotting factors

hemophilia

3

Hemophilia _: deficiency of factor VIII

A

4

Hemophilia _: deficiency of factor IX

B (Christmas disease)

5

deficiency of von Willibrand's factor

von Willbrand's disease

6

x-linked; severity depends upon the extent of the deficiency; increased PTT

hemophilia A

7

pseudotumor of _; hemarthrosis; increased bleeding from many dental procedures

hemophilia

8

general term, indicating a decrease in red blood cell volume (hematocrit) or concentration of hemoglobin; usually an indication of underlying systemic disease; conditions include vitamin deficiencies, liver disease, malignancies (myelophthisic _)

anemia

9

fatigue, headache, lightheadednes; may see pallor of the mucous membranes

anemia

10

genetic disorder of hemoglobin synthesis; thymine is substituted for adenine; deoxygenated hemoglobin subject to molecular aggregation and polymerization

Sickle cell anemia

11

Codominant gene; abnormal gene confers a resistance to malaria; frequently affects patients in Africa, Mediterranean basin, and Asia; 8% African Americans carry the trait

Sickle cell anemia

12

reduced blood flow to organs and tissues; susceptibility to infections secondary to spleen destruction; reduced trabeculae pattern; "hair on end" skull radiograph

Sickle cell

13

Inherited disorder of hemoglobin synthesis; similar to sickle cell anemia, carriers of the trait are resistant to the malarial organism; Mediterranean, African, Indian and Southwest Asians are more often affected; Hair on end radiograph; bone marrow hyperplasia

Thalassemia

14

hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy; tissue hypoxia; bacterial infections; high-output cardiac failure

thalassemia

15

Complete failure of hematopoietic precursor (stem) cells to differentiate into all elements of the circulation; most cases appear to be an immune-mediated disease caused by cytotoxic T lymphocytes; unknown etiology, but environmental toxins, viruses, and drugs have been impicated

aplastic anemia

16

fatigue, lightheadedness (secondary to erythrocyte deficiency); bleeding disorders (secondary to thombocytopenia)

aplastic anemia

17

Infections (secondary to leukocytic deficiency); Oral: -hemorrhage, petechiae, pallor, ulcerations, gingival hyperplasia

aplastic anemia

18

Aplastic anemia: recurrence is common and patient are at increased risk of developing _ _

acute leukemia

19

Decreased numbers of circulating neutrophils; genetic (infants) or acquired (older children and adults), secondary to numerous infectious, neoplasia, or chemotherapeutic agents

neutropenia

20

increased susceptibility to bacterial infections (ear, oral cavity, later pulmonary); oral lesions: gingival ulcerations

neutropenia

21

decrease or absence of cells of granulocytic derivation, particularly neutrophils; decreased production or increased destruction secondary to certain drugs or some syndromes; may be idiopathic

agranulocytosis

22

bacterial infections and their associated symptoms; oral lesions: punched-out ulcerations, NUG

agranulocytosis

23

idiopathic, periodic reductions in neutrophils; isolated or autosomal dominant; symptoms are associated with the neutrophil count

cyclic neutropenia

24

childhood onset; low neutrophil counts (3-6 days) correspond to infections and their associated symptoms; cycles are approximately 21 days; oral and other GI ulcerations; periodontal bone loss and gingival recession; "floating in air" radiographic appearance

cyclic neutropenia

25

decrease in the number of platelets; secondary to reduced production, increased destruction or sequestration in the spleen (during splenomegaly); systemic diseases such as lupus or HIV also may be characterized by thrombocytopenia

thrombocytopenia

26

_ thrombocytopenic purpura- occurs in childhood after nonspecific viral infection

idiopathic

27

_ thrombocytopenic purpura- coagulation disorder, resulting in numerous thrombi within small blood vessels

thrombotic

28

submucosal/cutaneous hemorrhage; epistaxis; hemoptysis; GI or urinary bleeding; petechia, ecchymosis, hematoma; spontaneous gingival hemorrhage

thrombocytopenia

29

thrombocytopenia: biopsy specimens will show _ deposition within blood vessels

fibrin

30

idiopathic increase in red blood cell mass, usually concurrently with uncontrolled platelet and granulocyte production; probably secondary to the behavior of an abnormal progenitor stem cell

polycythemia vera

31

older adults; nonspecific early symptoms; thrombus formation; hypertension, splenomegaly; ruddy complexion; erythromelalgia; excess hemorrhage (gingival, epistaxis, ecchymosis)

polycythemia vera

32

heterogeneous group of malignancies of hematopoietic stem cell derivation; probably due to genetic and environmental factors (pesticides, benzene, ionizing radiation, viruses); Philadelphia chromosome

leukemia

33

Most common from of leukemia, elderly adults

CLL

34

Form of leukemia associated with children

ALL

35

symptoms related to reduction of normal red and white blood cells (infections, bleeding, fatigue, oral ulceration); hepatosplenomegaly; lymphadenopathy

leukemia

36

Occasional infiltration of oral soft tissue with _ cells; granulocytic sarcoma/chloroma

leukemic

37

poorly understood malignancy; lesional cell (Reed-Sternberg cell) makes up only 1-3% of cells

Hodgkin's Lymphoma

38

M>F; almost uniformly begins in lymph nodes, especially the cervical and supraclavicular; fever, night sweats, pruritis

Hodgkin's Lymphoma

39

Hodgkins lymphoma histo: Reed Sternberg cells (look like kernels of popcorn

nodular lymphocyte predominant

40

Hodgkins lymphoma histo: large nuclei form; 5 subtypes

Classical Hodgkins lymphoma

41

heterogeneous group of lymphoreticular malignancies; usually arise in lymph nodes; grow as solid masses; more common in the immunocompromised

non-hodgkins

42

primarily adults; nodal and extranodal (oral); slowly growing mass; oral lesions; extranodal, "boggy" swelling, usually normal or purplish in color; may occur in bone

non hodgkins lymphoma

43

Lymphoma: _-grade lesions tend to be characterized by a follicular arrangement

low

44

Lymphoma: _-grade lesions will be more diffuse

higher

45

high-grade, undifferentiated lymphoma of B-lymphocyte origin; American (sporadic) and African (endemic) variants; thought to be associated with Epstein-Barr virus (African)

Burkitt's lymphoma

46

_ variant of Burkitts: children; more likely to affect the jaws (50-79%), especially the maxilla; swelling, tooth mobility or premature exfoliation; pain and paresthesia typically minimal

African

47

_ variant of Burkitt's: wider age range; typically presents as an abdominal mass; radiographic: early loss of lamina dura; patchy, ill-defined radiolucency

American

48

small, non-cleaved cells with scattered macrophages; "starry sky" classic pattern

burkitt's lymphoma

49

uncommon malignancy of plasma cell origin; monoclonal proliferation results in production of abnormal, nonfunctional immunoglobulin (monoclonal gammopathy, M-protein)

Multiple myeloma

50

older men; blacks>whites; bone pain, pathologic fracture; petechiae; fever; radiographic: multiple punched out radiolucencies

multiple myeloma

51

Bence Jones protein: excess light chain proteins presents in serum and urine; amyloid: deposition of Bence Jones protein

multiple myeloma

52

monoclonal sheets of malignant plasma cells; amyloid: congo red positive stain

multiple myeloma

53

solitary, monoclonal lesion of plasma cells; may progress to multiple myeloma; adult males; 55 years; most occur in bone (extramedullary if outside bone); well-defined, solitary radiolucency

plasmacytoma

54

aggressive, destructive process of T lymphocytes; diagnosis is usually made after tertiary syphilis and Wegener's granulomatosa have been ruled out

Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma Nasal Type

55

adults; nasal stuffiness, epistaxis; deep necrotic ulcerations; may progress to palatal perforation; angiocentric arrangement of atypical inflammatory cells; necrosis

Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma

56

neoplastic proliferation of Langerhans cells (dendritic mononuclear cells normally found in the epidermis, mucosa, lymph node, and bone marrow)

Langerhans Cell Histocytosis

57

Form of Langerhans cell histiocytosis: acute, disseminated

letterer-siwe disease

58

form of langerhans cell: chronic, disseminated

hand-schuller-christian disease

59

M=F; less than 15 years old; solitary or multiple bone lesions; "floating in air" radiograph; dull pain and tenderness often accompany bone lesions; ulcerative or proliferative gingival masses may also be seen; birbeck granules

Langerhans cell histiocytosis