Flashcards in Heart Deck (41)
damage to collagen that weakens the leaflets?
mitral valve prolapse
nodular calcification beginning in interstitial cells?
calcific aortic stenosis
rheumatic heart disease
heart is unable to pump blood at the rate sufficient to metabolic demands of the tissues?
congestive heart failure
heart failure cells found in left sided heart failure?
infrequent, isolated right sided heart failure?
nutmeg liver found in ...
right sided heart failure
an abnormal communication between chambers or blood vessels?
most common congenital heart disease?
left to right shunt
left to right shunt; abnormal fixed openings in the atrial septum
atrial septal defect
left to right shunt; represents the failure to close a foramen
patent foramen ovale
left to right shunt; most common form of CHD; incomplete closure of the ventricular septum?
ventricular septal defect
what kind of shunt is patent arteriosus ductus?
left to right
PDA can be induced to remain open by administering...
prostaglandin E1 analogs
cyanotic congenital heart disease?
right to left shunt
example of right to left shunt?
tetralogy of fallot
4 defects of the heart in tetralogy of fallot?
overriding aorta, subpulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect, right ventricular hypertrophy
examples of obstructive congenital disease?
coarctation of aorta; aortic valvar stenosis; pulmonary valvar stenosis
resulting from myocardial ischemia--an imbalance between myocardial perfusion and cardiac demand for oxygenated blood?
ischemic heart disease
paroxysmal and recurrent attacks of substernal or chest discomfort?
3 types of angina?
stable, unstable, prinzmetal
angina most likely to progress to heart attack?
#1 cause of death in US
for ... mycardial injury is reversible
sequence of events in ischemic cardiac myocytes?
1. ATP depletion; 2. loss of contractility; 3. ATP reduction (due to anaerobic production); 4. Reversible cell injury; 5. irreversible cell injury; 6. microvascular injury
most useful proteins used to diagnose MI?
cardiac specific troponins T and I; CK-MB
an acute, immunologically mediated, multisystem inflammatory disease following group A streptococcal pharyngitis?
a chronic form of acute rheumatic carditis with valvular abnormalities---> mitral valve stenosis
rheumatic heart disease
manifestations of RHD?
vegetations, aschoff bodies, fibrinous pericarditis
plump activated macrophages found in aschoff bodies?
a microbial infection of the heart valves or the mural endocardium leading to the formation of vegetations; mostly by bacteria?
infection of a previously normal heart valve by a highly virulent microorganism(S aureus); very destructive; difficult to cure?
infection of organisms with lower virulence; infections of deformed valves; less destructive; cure w/ antibodies?
janeway lesions and splinter hemorrhages?
... infections are most common cause of myocarditis in US
a heterogeneous group of diseases of the myocardium associated with mechanical and/or electrical dysfunction; exhibit inappropriate hypertrophy or dilation?
3 morphologic patterns of cardiomyopathies?
dilated, hypertrophic, restrictive
restrictive and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy