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Flashcards in Heart Deck (41):
1

damage to collagen that weakens the leaflets?

mitral valve prolapse

2

nodular calcification beginning in interstitial cells?

calcific aortic stenosis

3

fibrotic thickening?

rheumatic heart disease

4

heart is unable to pump blood at the rate sufficient to metabolic demands of the tissues?

congestive heart failure

5

heart failure cells found in left sided heart failure?

hemociderin-laden macrophages

6

infrequent, isolated right sided heart failure?

cor pulmonale

7

nutmeg liver found in ...

right sided heart failure

8

an abnormal communication between chambers or blood vessels?

shunt

9

most common congenital heart disease?

left to right shunt

10

left to right shunt; abnormal fixed openings in the atrial septum

atrial septal defect

11

left to right shunt; represents the failure to close a foramen

patent foramen ovale

12

left to right shunt; most common form of CHD; incomplete closure of the ventricular septum?

ventricular septal defect

13

what kind of shunt is patent arteriosus ductus?

left to right

14

PDA can be induced to remain open by administering...

prostaglandin E1 analogs

15

cyanotic congenital heart disease?

right to left shunt

16

example of right to left shunt?

tetralogy of fallot

17

4 defects of the heart in tetralogy of fallot?

overriding aorta, subpulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect, right ventricular hypertrophy

18

examples of obstructive congenital disease?

coarctation of aorta; aortic valvar stenosis; pulmonary valvar stenosis

19

resulting from myocardial ischemia--an imbalance between myocardial perfusion and cardiac demand for oxygenated blood?

ischemic heart disease

20

paroxysmal and recurrent attacks of substernal or chest discomfort?

angina pectoris

21

3 types of angina?

stable, unstable, prinzmetal

22

angina most likely to progress to heart attack?

unstable

23

#1 cause of death in US

myocardial infarction

24

for ... mycardial injury is reversible

30 min

25

sequence of events in ischemic cardiac myocytes?

1. ATP depletion; 2. loss of contractility; 3. ATP reduction (due to anaerobic production); 4. Reversible cell injury; 5. irreversible cell injury; 6. microvascular injury

26

most useful proteins used to diagnose MI?

cardiac specific troponins T and I; CK-MB

27

an acute, immunologically mediated, multisystem inflammatory disease following group A streptococcal pharyngitis?

rheumatic fever

28

a chronic form of acute rheumatic carditis with valvular abnormalities---> mitral valve stenosis

rheumatic heart disease

29

manifestations of RHD?

vegetations, aschoff bodies, fibrinous pericarditis

30

plump activated macrophages found in aschoff bodies?

anitschkow cells

31

a microbial infection of the heart valves or the mural endocardium leading to the formation of vegetations; mostly by bacteria?

infective endocarditis

32

infection of a previously normal heart valve by a highly virulent microorganism(S aureus); very destructive; difficult to cure?

Acute IE

33

infection of organisms with lower virulence; infections of deformed valves; less destructive; cure w/ antibodies?

Subacute IE

34

janeway lesions and splinter hemorrhages?

IE

35

... infections are most common cause of myocarditis in US

viral

36

a heterogeneous group of diseases of the myocardium associated with mechanical and/or electrical dysfunction; exhibit inappropriate hypertrophy or dilation?

cardiomyopathies

37

3 morphologic patterns of cardiomyopathies?

dilated, hypertrophic, restrictive

38

systolic dysfunction?

dilated cardiomyopathy

39

diastolic dysfunction?

restrictive and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

40

catecholamine cardiotoxicity?

dilated cardiomyopathy

41

100% genetic disorder?

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy