Flashcards in Diaphragm, Kidneys, & Posterior Abdominal wall Deck (45):
at what spinal level is the caval opening in the diaphragm ? what goes through there
T8 - IVC
at what spinal level is the abdominal hiatus and what goes through there
T10 - esophagus
at what spinal level is the aortic hiatus and what goes through there ?
T12 - abdominal aorta
where does the phrenic nerve supply and where does it originate
supplies motor and some sensory to diaphragm
-originates at C3-C5
what is the difference b/w paralysis of diaphragmatic respiration and paralysis hemidiaphragm
paralysis hemidiaphragm only half of the diaphragm is affected
-will not contract during inspiration thus remains high (diaphragm goes down when contracting/inspiration)
what does the median arcuate ligament arch over ?
arches over the abdominal aorta
what do the 2 medial arcuate ligaments arch over ?
psoas minor m. and psoas major m.
what do the 2 lateral arcuate ligaments arch over ?
quadratus and lumborum mm
what vasculature supplies the superior surface of the diaphragm ?
pericardiacophrenic and superior phrenic aa.
-via internal thoracic and thoracic aorta
what vasculature supplies the inferior surface of the diaphragm
inferior phrenic a.
-via abdominal aorta
what vasculature supplies the periphery of the diaphragm ?
-via internal thoracic a.
what is the difference in location of the superior pole's of the Right and left kidneys
R superior pole at 12th rib
L superior pole at 11th rib (more superior)
where do the kidneys ascend from during development
ascend from the pelvis
where are the kidneys located in reference to the peritoneum
which renal artery is longer ? why
Right renal artery b/c it passes posterior to IVC
which renal vein is longer ? why ?
Left renal vein b/c it passes anterior to abdominal aorta
what is the outer 1/3 of the kidney called, inner 2/3 ?
outer 1/3 is renal cortex
inner 2/3 is renal medulla
explain the drainage of urine in the kidney starting from the renal pyramid
pyramids to renal papillae to minor calyces to major calyces
----> renal pelvis ----> ureter -----> bladder ----> urethra
the ureters cross what muscle as they descend to the urinary bladder
cross psoas major m. running obliquley posterior to gonadal arteries
the ureters recieve arterial blodd from 4 sources, what are they starting most superior?
-internal iliac a.
what is a intravenous urogram and what is it used for
test which allows to visualize the ureters and urinary bladder for location of stones
kidney stones are also called _____ and produced where ?
calculi, formed in the kidney
explain calculi referred pain
referred pain changes as stone descends down ureter
where are the adrenal glands and what is the difference b/w the right and left glands
they are on top of kidney (suprarenal)
-Right is triangular
-Left is semilunar shape
what is the difference in function of the adrenal cortex vs. the adrenal medulla
adrenal cortex (outer part) - produces hormones/steroids
adrenal medulla (inner) - acts as a sympathetic ganglion
what are the 3 sources of suprarenal arteries that supply the adrenal gland
superior suprarenal - branch of inferior phrenic a.
middle suprarenal - branch of abdominal aorta
inferior suprarenal - branch of renal a.
why is the adrenal gland so well vascularized
because of its endocrine function
at what level does the abdominal aorta bifurcate
what arteries supply the posterior abdominal wall
4 pairs of lumbar arteries
there are 6 muscles that make up the posterior abdominal wall, can you name them ?
what is the nerve that supplies motor and sensory innervation to the anterior and lateral abdominal wall
subcostal n. (most superior)
at what spinal level does the subcostal n. originate
what 2 nerves that run together supply motor and sensory innervation to the abdominal muscles and descends anterior to quadratus lumborum
Iliohypogastric (usually superior)
what specific region does the iliohypogastric nerve supply
skin of the suprapubic region
what nerve pierces and descends anterior to the psoas major muscle
what spinal level do the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nn. originate from
what does the genitofemoral nerve bifurcate into ?
gental branch and femoral branch
wt what spinal level does the genitofemoral n. originate from ?
what nerve descends anterior to the iliacus m. and deep to the inguinal ring ?
lateral femoral cutaneous n.
what spinal level does the lateral femoral cutaneous n. originate from and what does it supply
-supplies anterior and lateral thigh
the femoral n. originates at what spinal level and runs b/w what 2 muscles of the posterior abdominal wall ?
-runs b/w the iliacus and psoas major mm.
what does the femoral n. innervate
motor and sensory to the anterior thigh
what does the obturator n. innervate
motor and sensory to the medial thigh
where does the obturator n. originate ? where is it located in reference to the psoas major mm.
-runs medial and deep to psoas major mm.