Diaphragm, Kidneys, & Posterior Abdominal wall Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Diaphragm, Kidneys, & Posterior Abdominal wall > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diaphragm, Kidneys, & Posterior Abdominal wall Deck (45):
1

at what spinal level is the caval opening in the diaphragm ? what goes through there

T8 - IVC

2

at what spinal level is the abdominal hiatus and what goes through there

T10 - esophagus

3

at what spinal level is the aortic hiatus and what goes through there ?

T12 - abdominal aorta

4

where does the phrenic nerve supply and where does it originate

supplies motor and some sensory to diaphragm
-originates at C3-C5

5

what is the difference b/w paralysis of diaphragmatic respiration and paralysis hemidiaphragm

paralysis hemidiaphragm only half of the diaphragm is affected
-will not contract during inspiration thus remains high (diaphragm goes down when contracting/inspiration)

6

what does the median arcuate ligament arch over ?

arches over the abdominal aorta

7

what do the 2 medial arcuate ligaments arch over ?

psoas minor m. and psoas major m.

8

what do the 2 lateral arcuate ligaments arch over ?

quadratus and lumborum mm

9

what vasculature supplies the superior surface of the diaphragm ?

pericardiacophrenic and superior phrenic aa.
-via internal thoracic and thoracic aorta

10

what vasculature supplies the inferior surface of the diaphragm

inferior phrenic a.
-via abdominal aorta

11

what vasculature supplies the periphery of the diaphragm ?

musculophrenic a.
-via internal thoracic a.

12

what is the difference in location of the superior pole's of the Right and left kidneys

R superior pole at 12th rib
L superior pole at 11th rib (more superior)

13

where do the kidneys ascend from during development

ascend from the pelvis

14

where are the kidneys located in reference to the peritoneum

retroperitoneal

15

which renal artery is longer ? why

Right renal artery b/c it passes posterior to IVC

16

which renal vein is longer ? why ?

Left renal vein b/c it passes anterior to abdominal aorta

17

what is the outer 1/3 of the kidney called, inner 2/3 ?

outer 1/3 is renal cortex
inner 2/3 is renal medulla

18

explain the drainage of urine in the kidney starting from the renal pyramid

pyramids to renal papillae to minor calyces to major calyces
----> renal pelvis ----> ureter -----> bladder ----> urethra

19

the ureters cross what muscle as they descend to the urinary bladder

cross psoas major m. running obliquley posterior to gonadal arteries

20

the ureters recieve arterial blodd from 4 sources, what are they starting most superior?

-renal a.
-gonadal aa.
-abdominal aorta
-internal iliac a.

21

what is a intravenous urogram and what is it used for

test which allows to visualize the ureters and urinary bladder for location of stones

22

kidney stones are also called _____ and produced where ?

calculi, formed in the kidney

23

explain calculi referred pain

referred pain changes as stone descends down ureter

24

where are the adrenal glands and what is the difference b/w the right and left glands

they are on top of kidney (suprarenal)
-Right is triangular
-Left is semilunar shape

25

what is the difference in function of the adrenal cortex vs. the adrenal medulla

adrenal cortex (outer part) - produces hormones/steroids
adrenal medulla (inner) - acts as a sympathetic ganglion

26

what are the 3 sources of suprarenal arteries that supply the adrenal gland

superior suprarenal - branch of inferior phrenic a.
middle suprarenal - branch of abdominal aorta
inferior suprarenal - branch of renal a.

27

why is the adrenal gland so well vascularized

because of its endocrine function

28

at what level does the abdominal aorta bifurcate

L4

29

what arteries supply the posterior abdominal wall

4 pairs of lumbar arteries

30

there are 6 muscles that make up the posterior abdominal wall, can you name them ?

-transversus abdominus
-quadratus lumborum
-psoas major
-psoas mior
-iliacus
-diaphragm

31

what is the nerve that supplies motor and sensory innervation to the anterior and lateral abdominal wall

subcostal n. (most superior)

32

at what spinal level does the subcostal n. originate

T12

33

what 2 nerves that run together supply motor and sensory innervation to the abdominal muscles and descends anterior to quadratus lumborum

Iliohypogastric (usually superior)
Ilioinguinal

34

what specific region does the iliohypogastric nerve supply

skin of the suprapubic region

35

what nerve pierces and descends anterior to the psoas major muscle

genitofemoral n.

36

what spinal level do the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nn. originate from

L1

37

what does the genitofemoral nerve bifurcate into ?

gental branch and femoral branch

38

wt what spinal level does the genitofemoral n. originate from ?

L1-L2

39

what nerve descends anterior to the iliacus m. and deep to the inguinal ring ?

lateral femoral cutaneous n.

40

what spinal level does the lateral femoral cutaneous n. originate from and what does it supply

L2-L3
-supplies anterior and lateral thigh

41

the femoral n. originates at what spinal level and runs b/w what 2 muscles of the posterior abdominal wall ?

-L2-L4
-runs b/w the iliacus and psoas major mm.

42

what does the femoral n. innervate

motor and sensory to the anterior thigh

43

what does the obturator n. innervate

motor and sensory to the medial thigh

44

where does the obturator n. originate ? where is it located in reference to the psoas major mm.

-L2-L4
-runs medial and deep to psoas major mm.

45

what is the name of the plexus that crosses over the ala (wings) of the sacrum ? what spinal level does it originate at ?

lumbosacral trunk
-L4-L5