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Flashcards in Heart Deck (40):

apex is of the heart is apart of what area of heart ? and sits in the _____intercostal space

left atrium in 5th intercostal space


what are the 4 divisions of the middle mediastinum

-superior, middle, anterior, posterior


what are the layers of the heart wall from superficial to deep

epicardium (visceral layer of serous pericardium)


what are the protective layers of the heart from outermost to innermost

fibrous pericardium
serous pericardium (2 layers)
-parietal layer
-visceral layer (epicardium)


the pericardial cavity is a potential space b/w what two layers ?

parietal and visceral layer of serous pericardium


what does the ligamentum arteriosum connect in the adult heart and what is it the fetal remnant of ?

connects L pulmonary a. w/arch of the aorta
-remnant of fetal ductus arteriosus


what was the function of the ductus arteriosus in fetal dev.

shunt blood from R ventricle to aorta
****bypass fetal lungs***


where do the pulmonary veins lead into and what is significant about them

2 on each side of L atria
-only oxygenated veins


what are the 3 main vessels that drain into the right atrium

SVC, IVC, coronary sinus


what are the 4 valves of the heart in order from which they flow through when blood reaches the R atrium

1 - Tricuspid AV valve
2- pulmonary semilunar valve
3 - Bicuspid/mitral valve
4 - aortic semilunar valve


what is connected to all valves that help tighten valve flaps

chordae tendinae and papillary muscles


after blood has been contracted/expelled through the aortic semilunar valve and aortic arch, some blood will begin to fall back down into the cups of the aortic semilunar valves. Where does this blood go ?

passivley flow into the coronary arteries


what are 2 types of valve problem

-incompetence (leaky valve)
-stenosis (narrowing)


what muscle lines the walls of the right atrium ?

pectinate muscle
*left atrium predominantly smooth muscle***


in what part of the heart would you find the fossa ovalis, what is this a remnant of ?

right atrial wall
-foramen ovale remnent


what is the crista terminalis and where can it be found

thickened ridge of smooth muscle near the opening of the SVC
-right atrium


what are the 3 parts of the of tricuspid valve, what about bicuspid valve

tricuspid - anterior, posterior, and septal cusps
bicuspid - anterior and posterior


what type of muscle lines the walls of the ventricles

trabeculae carne


what is the moderator band and where can it be found

Brings fibers of conducting system (R bundle branch) and connects them to anterior papillary m.
-right ventricle


if major vessels of the heart are occluded, what ensures that the myocardium of the heart is still supplied w/blood

collarteral routes


where does the coronary sinus lie w/in

coronary sulcus or atrioventricular sulcus


what are the 3 branches or tributaries of the coronary sinus

-great cardiac v.
-middle cardiac v.
-small cardiac v.


what a. does the great cardiac v. run with and where does it drain to ?

anterior IV a. w/in the Anterior IV sulcus
-drains into coronary sinus


besides the SVC, IVC, and coronary sinus, what else drains directly into the right atrium

anterior cardiac veins


anterior cardiac vv. pass superficial to what artery

right coronary a.


What are the branches of the Right coronary artery

1 - right marginal branch
2 - Posterior IV a. (R posterior descending a.)
3 - Anterior Right Atrial Branch (ARAB a.)


the Anterior right atrial branch is a branch off of the ______ artery. What is the smaller additional branch off this ARAB artery

R coronary artery
-sinotrial nodal branch


the left coronary artery itself is very short b/c it immediately divides into what two branches

- Anterior IV a. (left anterior descending a. )
-Circumflex a .


the circumflex artery is a branch off of the ______ artery. what is an additional branch off the circumflex a ?

left coronary
-left marginal branch


what is coronary artery dominance based off of ?

which gives off the posterior IV a.


what coronary a. is usually dominant

65 % of the time R coronary a is dominant
15 % its L
20 % balanced b/w both


what is the crista terminalis and where can it be found

thickened ridge of smooth muscle near the opening of the SVC
-right atrium
*** SA node is at superior part of this ****


atheroclerosis can lead to occlusion of coronary aa. What does this lead to, and what are the symptoms of this ?

Not enough O2 to myocardium (myocardial infarct)
-heavy heart/increased pressure sitting on it
-Referred pain to L arm


What veins are commonly used as grafts for a coronary bypass

1 - Great saphenous v.
2 - Internal thoracic a.
3 - radial a.


where would you import the grafted arteries in order to bypass the coronary aa.

into aorta and distal branch of coronary aa.


how does the SNS and PNS affect rate of heart beat, where are these messages derived from

SNS - increase heart rate from T1-T5
PNS - decrease heart rate from vagus n. (CN X)


the cardiac plexus is made up of what ?

-postganglioninc sympathetics
-preganglioninc parasympathetics


explain conduction of the heart

SA node depolarizes ----> AV node -----> AV bundle -----> R and L AV bundle branches (R to moderator band ---> papillary mm.) -----> perkinje fibers


damage to conducting system results in ________, whereas damage to the AV node will cause ________.

uncontrolled contraction


where would you place a pacemaker to control contractions of the heart

thread electrode down SVC into right atrium, through tricuspid valve and fixed into trabeculae carne mm. in R ventricular wall