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Flashcards in Lymphatic System Deck (48):
1

lymphatic system is composed of 7 things, what are they

1 - diffuse lymphatic tissue
2 - lymphatic nodules
3 - lymph nodes
4 - spleen
5 - bone marrow
6 - thymus
7 - lymphatic vessels

2

what are the 3 major functions of the lymphatic system

1 - drain excess interstitial fluid, return to circulation
2 - immune response - prod. of lymphocytes
3 - alt. route of transportation for hormones, nutrients, etc

3

what component of the lyphatic system is responsible for draining excess interstitial fluid and being the alternative route of transportation for many things

lymphatic vessels

4

what 3 components of the lymphatic system are characterized as the lymph organs ? Why ?

lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus
***Cuz all have capsules***

5

exchange b/w circulation and lymphatic vessels occurs where ?

lymphatic capillaries

6

what is the definitive cells of the lymphatic system

lymphocytes

7

through what type of vessel is lymph drained in the capillary beds returned back to the circualtion

lymphatic ducts

8

what are the 2 lymphatic ducts and what do they each drain

right lymphatic duct - returns upper right of body (1/4)
thoracic duct - returns upper left and lower body (3/4)

9

where is the junction of veins that the right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct return lymph ?

Venous angle between IJV and subclavian vv.
-on each side

10

what are the 2 distinguishing characteristics in identifying lymphatic capillaries

-irregular lumen
-NO RBC

11

the lumen of lymphatic vessels are all lined w/ ?

discontinuous endothelium
-simple squamous epithelium

12

what are the 3 main lymphocytes

1 - B cells
2 - T cells
3 - NK cells

13

what is the distribution of lymphocytes in blood circulation ?

T cells : 60-80 %
B cells : 20-30 %
NK : 5-10 %

14

what is the function of each type of lymphocyte

B - secrete Ab in humoral immunity
T - destroy cells in cell-mediated immunity
NK - kills

15

in general what do reticular cells do

lay down type III collagen to make a stroma or filamentous framework/network for lymphocytes to grab onto in most lymph organs

16

what type of cells make the supportive stroma or network in the thymus

epithelioreticular cells

17

what type of valves do lymphatic capillaries have

one way valves

18

diffuse lymphatic tissue is simply accumulations of lymphocytes where ?

in the lamina propria of various canals and tracts

19

where would you find lymphatic nodules ?

accumulations of lymphocytes in the walls of various canals and tracts

20

what are the 2 types of lymphatic nodules

1 - primary nodule
2 - secondary nodules

21

what are the two zones of secondary lymphatic nodules

inner germinal center (light stained)
outer mantle zone (dark stained)

22

what is the main difference b/w primary and secondaary lymphatic nodules

primary has NOT responded to Ag
secondary has larger lymphocytes cuz they HAVE responded to Ag (activated)

23

where would you find follicular dendritic cells (FDC's) ?

germinal centers of secondary lymphatic nodules

24

normally lymphatic nodules are found by _______ but sometimes in certain locations they can be found in ___ ?

themselves (solitary nodules)
aggregations

25

where at in the human body would you most likely find aggregated lymphatic nodules

tonsils, and peyers patches in ileum

26

what tonsils make up the ring around the entrance to the oropharynx and nasopharynx

1 pharyngeal tonsil
2 - palatine tonsils
2 - lingual tonsils

27

What is MALT, and what other places in the body have more location specific names

mucous-associtated lymphoid tissue (accumulations of diffuse lymphatic tissue and lymphatic nodules
-GALT and BALT

28

lymph nodes are the predominant filtering system for lymphatic vessels, what are the 5 layers of lymph nodes from out to in

capsule, trabeculae, reticular tissue/network, cortex, medulla

29

what are the 2 layers of the cortex of lymph nodes, and which layer contains lymphatic nodules

superficial cortex (nodular cortex)
deep cortex (paracortex)

30

what type of lymphocytes can be found at each layer of the lymph node cortex, what about lympn node medulla

superficial cortex - B cells
deep cortex - T cells
medulla - B cells

31

what are the 2 parts of the medulla layer in lymph nodes

-medullary cords (groups of B cells)
-medullary sinuses (places where lymph flows)

32

what specific types of cells would you find in the reticular network of lymph nodes

-reticular cells (secrete type III collagen)
-APC's (dendritic cells, macrophages)

33

what part of the lymph node has NO cortex

at the hilum

34

what specific lymph vessel can be found at the hilum of a lymph node and what is its function

efferent lymphatic vessel
-returns lymph back to circulation

35

explain the path of lymph flow through the lymph node

afferent lymph vessel---->subcapsular sinus ----> trabecular sinus ---> medullary sinus ----> efferent lymph vessel

36

90 % of lymph flows into the lymph node from ________ whereas the remaining 10 % comes in from ______

90 % - High endothelial venules (HEV)
10 % - afferent lymph vessel

37

what is the function of the thymus in the lymphatic system

T cell education and maturation and differentiation

38

what lymph organ has NO reticular cells

thymus

39

what is an easy indicator to identify the thymus

thymic lobules and thymic corpuscle

40

what are the 2 parts to a thymic lobule

-darker outer cortex
-lighter inner medulla

41

how many types of epithelial cells are found in the thymus

6 total
- 3 in cortex and 3 in medulla

42

the thymic corpuscle is unique b/c it very eosinophillic and starting what process

keratinization

43

what is the function of the spleen

fliter and monitor blood immunologically just as lymph nodes monitor lymph vessels

44

what are the 2 areas of the spleen

Red pulp
white pulp

45

What is interesting in the naming of the red and white pulp ?

named according to red referring to filtering RBC NOT to how they stain
-Red pulp is lighter outside area
-White pulp is darker inner ring

46

what is the white pulp and what does it surround

it is a periarterial lymphatic sheath (PALS) around a central a.

47

what part of the spleen is involved in filtration and removing old RBC

red pulp

48

where at in the spleen would you find splenic sinuses and splenic billiroth cords

red pulp