Histology of the Urinary system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Histology of the Urinary system Deck (45):
1

what are the 3 main functions of the kidney

-fliter blood
-dispose nitrogenous wastes
-regulate water, electrolyte, and acid/base balances

2

kidneys are where in reference to the peritoneum

retroperitoneal

3

which kidney is lower and why

right kidney is lower cuz of liver

4

the renal capsule is composed of how many layers ?, what are they

2
-outer layer w/ lots of collagen and few fibroblasts
-inner layer w/few collagen and lots fibroblasts

5

where is the renal papilla located and where is the base of the pyramids

renal papilla is apex of pyramid pointing towads hilum
-base of pyramids is facing the cortex

6

what part of the kidney are renal corpuscles located

renal cortex

7

one renal lobe consists of ?

-renal pyramid w/ overlying cortex
-1/2 of adj. renal collum

8

why is the glomerular bed of the kidney unusual

-because it has arterioles going to and away from it (instead of just veins away from it)
-because it has 2 capillary beds in 1 series

9

where are the arcuate arteries located

arching over the base of the pyramids by the cortex

10

1 afferent arteriole supplies _____ nephrons/glomeruli

one

11

what is the pattern of vasculature starting from the aorta and ending at the internal vena cava

AORTA ---> renal a.---> segmental a. ---> lobar a. ---> interlobar a. ---> arcuate a. ----> interlobular a. ----> afferent arteriole ----> GLOMERULUS ---> efferent arteriole ---> peritubular cappilaries ---> interlobular v. ----> arcuate vein ---> interlobar v. ----> lobar v. ----> renal v. -----> IFV

12

what are the 3 responsibilities of the nephron

1 - filtration
2- resorption
3 - secretion

13

what is the structural and functional unit of the kidney

nephron

14

what are the 2 parts of the nephron

-renal corpuscle (filtration)
-renal tubule (reabsorption and secretion)

15

where does every nephron drain to

collecting ducts

16

what part of the nephron does the reabsorption and secretion occur

renal tubule

17

what is a uriniferous tubule

nephron + collecting tubule

18

what are the 2 types of nephrons and how do they differ

juxtamedulary nephron - very long loop of Henle (extreme concentration of urine)
coritcal nephron - very short loop of Henle

19

what are the 2 components of the renal corpuscle

-glomerulus (tuft of capillaries)
-bowmans capsule

20

where does filtration occur

renal corpuscle

21

what is the bowmans capsule

double layered epithelial cup surrounding the glomerules
-

22

what are the 2 layers of the bowmans capsule

-visceral internal layer
-parietal external layer

23

where is the vascular pole in reference to the renal corpuscle

at the open end of the cup where vasculature enters and exits

24

where is the tubular pole in reference to the renal corpuscle

opposite the open end, where filtrate exits bowmans capsule

25

what are podocytes and where can they be found

simple squamous epithelial cells in visceral layer of the bowmans capsule

26

what are the extensions of podocytes cell bodies called ?

pedicels

27

what is the space b/w pedicel extensions called

filtration slit

28

there is a semipermeable membrane covering the pedicels and filtration space, what is it called and what specifically is too Large to pass through it

slit diaphragm, RBC to big to pass through it

29

what does the renal tubule (component of nephron) consist of

-Proximal convuluted tubule (PCT)
-Loop of Henle
-Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)

30

what part of the renal tubule is know for having a microvilli brush border giving the lumen a cloudy/fuzzy apparence

-PCT

31

what type of epithelial cells are found in the visceral and parietal layers of the bowmans capsule

simple squamous

32

what type of epithelial cells are found in the thick descending and ascending limbs of the looop of Henle

simple cuboidal epithelium

33

what type of epithelial cells are found in the thin descending and ascending limbs of the loop of henle

simple squamous epithelieum

34

both the PCT and DCT would be found where in a cross section, the cortex or medulla

renal cortex

35

the DCT has more or less microvilli compared to PCT

much smaller and little to no microvilli

36

what is the macula densa

thickened region of cells by the ascending limb

37

what are the juxtaglomerular cells

flat muscle cells by afferent arterioles

38

what makes up the juxtaglomerular apparatus and where is it found

macula densa + juxtaglomerular cells
-located in the vascular pole

39

what type of epithelial cells are found in the collecting ducts

simple cuboidal epithelium

40

what does a cross section from the collecting duct look like in relation to the PCT and DCT

larger lumen, NO microvilli so very clear

41

what is the drain pattern of urine starting from the collecting tubules and ending at the urethra

collecting tubules ---> colelcting ducts ---> papillary ducts ---> minor calyx ---> major calyx ---> renal pelvis ---> ureter ---> urinary bladder ---> urethra

42

what propels urine from the kidney to urinary bladder

peristalsis of the ureter

43

what type of epithelium would you find at the mucosa layer of the urinary bladder

transistional epithelium/urothelium

44

what type of epithelium would you find in the male urethra in the prostatic part , membranous part, and spongy part

prostatic - urothelium
membranous - stratified or pseudostratified collumnar
spongy - stratified or pseudostratified collumnar

45

what type of epithelium would you find in the female urethra

urothelium proximally then change to
-stratified squamous distally