Flashcards in Thoracic wall, lungs, middle mediastimun Deck (52):
what are the 3 functions of the thorax
1 - breathing
2 - protection of vital organs
3 - conduit for important passageways
what are the 3 cavities of the thorax
2 pleural cavities
1 middle mediastinum cavity
what are the 3 parts of the sternum
1 - manubrium
2 - body of sternum
3 - xiphoid process
the manubrium has a specific articulation notch for what joint ?
what divides the manubrium from the body of the sternum, and what rib articulates at this surface
what is the distinction b/w the superior mediastinum and inferior mediastinum
horizontal plane at the sternal angle
what are the 4 parts to a rib, and what articulates at each surface
1 - head : articulates w/ 2 vertebral bodies and 1 intervertebral disc
2 - tubercle : articulates w/ 1 transvers process
3 - body
4 - costal groove
the region of the greatest curve on a rib is called the _____. what is significant about this point
-where the neurovasculature splits
what are the 3 different types of ribs, and what rib numbers go with each
true ribs (1-8) - connected to sternum
false ribs (8-12) - connected w/costal cartilage
floating ribs (11-12) - no costal cartilage connection
breasts are found in the superficial pectoral region, they are composed of what 2 things
what vessels supply the breast region
internal thoracic a. and v.
-specifically the 2nd to 4th intercostal branches
lymphatics in the breast region drain to where ?
what provides cutaneous innervation to the breast region
lateral and anterior branches of the 4-6th thoracic intercostal n.
what are the 2 muscles of the pectoral region, and what are the individual heads of each
pec major - clavicular head and sternocostal head
pec minor -
the pec minor muscle is enveloped in ________ fascia ?
what are the muscles of the anterior thoracic wall that can be seen on the external surface of the thorax ?
external intercostal m.
internal intercostal m.
**run in same direction as obliques**
what are the muscles of the anterior thoracic wall that can be seen on the internal surface of the thorax ?
-innermost intercostals (laterally)
-transversus thoracis (medially)
what muscles of the thorax works in raising the ribs during inspiration, what about depressing the ribs during exhalation
Inspiration - ext. intercostal, & seratus posterior sup.
Exhalation - int. intercostal, innermost intercostal, seratus post. inferior,
where would you find the intercostal artery, vein, and nerve in relation to the intercostal space (ICS), and in what order
Superior of ICS or just below each rib
where would you find the collateral n, a, v, in reference to the ICS
Inferior part of ICS or just above each rib
what is the relationship b/w the ribs, and the diaphragm in relation to how they move during breathing
they move in opposite directions
what is the function of the plerura and what are teh 2 types of pleura
secrete serous fluid to reduce surface tension
-visceral pleura - covers lungs
-parietal pleura - covers thoracic walls
which is sensitive to pain the visceral or parietal pleura
the visceral and parietal pleura become once continuous membrane where ?
at the root of the lung
what is effusion in the pleural cavity
fluid filling of potentail pleural cavity
***pleural cavity is a potential space ***
what is the result of effusion in the pleural cavity
compresses the lungs = difficult breathing
what is the difference b.w a pneumothorax vs. a hemothorax
pneumothorax is accumulation of air potential pleural cavity whereas hemothorax is accumulation of blood
when looking at a chest film, which will appear darker the normal side or pneumothorax side
side full of air (pneumothorax) is darker and full of air
what is pleurisy and what does is result in
inflammation of the pleura
-leads to pleural adhesions b/w visceral and parietal pleura
what is a pleural tap (thoracentesis) , and where does this occur ?
aspiration of fluids
-perform at midaxillary line in ICS of 6 or 7
what is the division of lobes on the right and left side of the lungs
-Right has 3 lobes (upper, middle, lower) seperated by horizontal and oblique fissure
-Left has 2 (upper and lower) lobes seperated by oblique fissure
the oblique fissure is also known as the ___ fissure whereas the horizontal fissure is also known as the ______
oblique = major fissure
horizontal - minor fissure (only on R)
the root of the lungs connects what ?
lungs to mediastinum
what/ where is the pulmonary ligament
most inferior portion of the connection b/w the lungs and middle mediastinum
what is the division of lung bronchi ?
trachea ----> primary (main) bronchi ---> secondary (lobar) bronchi ----> tertiary (segmental) bronchi
how many secondary and tertiary bronchi are there on each side
secondary bronchi - 3 on right 2 on left
-tertiary bronchi - 10 on right 8 on left
what is the carina
the most inferior extent of the trachea where it divides into the R and L main bronchi
What neurovasculature would you find at the right root of the lungs
what neurovasculature would you find on the left root of the lungs
-recurrent laryngeal n.
the vagus n. passes ____ to the root of the lungs whereas the phrenic . pass ______
-vagus passes posteriorly
-phrenic passes anterior to root of lungs
the pericardiacophrenic vessels are branches of what, and specifically run with the _______ n.
branches of the internal thoracic a. and brachiocephalic v.
--run with the phrenic n.
the intercostal a. on the anterior thoracic wall are branches of the ______ whereas the posterior intercostal a. are branches off of _________
anterior - internal thoracic a.
posterior - directly off of descending aorta
what specific artery supply the respitory tissue itself (lungs and bronchi)
lymph from the lungs drains to where ?
-R/L broncheomediastinal trunks
What is the anatomical division of the middle mediastinum
superior division (separated by sternal angle)
what is the pericardium
fibrous sac around heart lined with serous membrane
the fibrous portion of the pericardium is continuous with what ?
the diaphragm inferiorly
the pericardium is pierced by 8 vessels, what are they ?
SVC, IVC, aorta, pulmonary trunk, and 4 pulmonary vv.
what is the diff. b/w the pericardial sac, and the pericardial cavity
pericardial sac is the inner membrane layer of the pericardium (both parietal and visceral layers)
pericardial cavity is the "potential space" b/w the layers of the pericardial sac (b/w visceral and parietal layers)
what is pericardial effusion, and what does it result in
accumulation of excess fluid in pericardial cavity
-leads to compression of the heart and potential congestive heart failure
what is hemopericardium, and what does it lead to ?
accumulation of blood in pericardial cavity
-leads to cardiac tamponade which results in compression of heart and great vessels