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Flashcards in Development of the Respiratory System Deck (38):
1

what week does the respiratory system start developing

week 4

2

what is the first sign appearing in week 4 that starts resp. development

laryngeotracheal groove forms caudal to 4th pharyngeal pouch

3

as the laryngealtracheal groove protrudeventrally it becomes an endodermal outgrowth known as the ?

lung bud or resp. diverticulum

4

the lung bud is an endodermal outgrowth from what ?

from the dorsally oriented foregut

5

as the resp. lung bud develops ventrally , a ____________ develops to seperate it from the dorsal foregut

tracheosophageal septum

6

what is the remaining connection b/w the pharynx and resp. lung bud in adults called

primordial laryngeal inlet

7

if development of the resp. system results in an abnormal connection b/w the espohagus and trachea b/c of abnormal development of the tracheoesophageal septum, what is the result ?

tracheoesophageal fistula

8

what is esophageal atresia

blind pouching of the esophagus b/c of a posteriorly deviating tracheoesophageal septum

9

which occurs more superior and which occurs inferior b/w a tracheoesophageal fistula and an esophageal atresia

tracheoesophageal fistula occurs inferior
esophageal atresia occurs superior

10

tracheoesophageal fistula and esophageal atresia together put a patient at risk for what ?

polyhydramnios
-too much amniotic fluid b/c esophagus cant drain it to stomach

11

what are the common symptoms a patient woud experience w/ an esophageal atresia

drooling
-regurgitation
-cant swallow = infection of lungs occurs b/c ingested food goes to trachea then to lungs instead of stomach

12

endoderm gives rise to what resp. structures

epithelial lining
glands of airways

13

splanchnic mesoderm gives rise to what resp. structures

- smooth m. inside trachea and bronchi
- CT of airways

14

what does the esophagus develop from

part of foregut just caudal to pharynx

15

what does the hypopharyngeal eminence give rise too

mesenchyme of cranial part - tongue
mesenchyme of caudal part - epiglottis

16

laryngeal cartilages and musculature arise from what pharyngeal arch pairs

4 and 6

17

the laryngeal muscles arising from the 4 pharyngeal arch are innervated by ____________, whereas the mm. arising from the 6th pharyngeal arch are innervated by the ___________ ?

-superior laryngeal n.
-recurrent laryngeal n.

18

as the lung bud continues to grow ventrally into the splanchnic mesoderm, it divides to form __________.
What day does this occur

2 primary bronchial buds (future primary bronchi)
-day 28

19

once the lung bud has split, the primary bronchial buds growing w/in the splanchnic mesoderm are buldging into what ?

the pericardioperitoneal canal

20

the pericardioperitoneal canal eventually changes name to the pleural cavities. With that said, what gives rise to the visceral pleura and what gives rise to the parietal pleura

splanchnic mesoderm - visceral pleura (lining over lungs)
somatic mesoderm - parietal pleura (lining of thoracic cavity)

21

primary bronchial buds divide into what ?
what day does this occur

3 secondary bronchial (lobar )buds on rights
2 secondary bronchial (lobar) buds on Left
-day 30

22

each secondary bronchial bud will supply _____ lobe of the lung

one

23

what do secondary bronchial (lobar) buds develop into ?

10 tertiary (segmental) bronchial buds on right
8-9 tertiary (segmental) bronchial buds on left

24

what makes up a bronchpulmonary segment

tertiary bronchus+surrounding tissue

25

explain the movement of air starting at the trachea

trachea --> primary bronchi --> secondary bronchi ---> tertiary bronchi --> bronchioles ---> terminal bronchioles ---> resp. bronchioles ---> alveolar ducts ---> terminal sacs/primitve alveloi

26

what are the 4 stages of lung development, and what weeks do they occur in

pseudoglandular : week 6-16
canalicular : week 16-26
terminal sac : week 26-birth
alveolar : 32 weeks to 8 yrs.

27

what does lung tissue look like during the pseudoglanular stage of development (6-16)

collection of exocrine glands

28

can a fetus survive during the pseudoglandular stage

NO, b/c resp. bronchioles and alveolar sacs not developed yet so cant do gas exchange

29

what does lung tissue look like during the canalicular stage of resp. dev. (16-26

highly vascular

30

can a fetus survive if born during the canalicular stage

YES, b/c respiration is possible since resp. bronchioles present
-most likely die though

31

blood-brain barrier is established during what stage of resp. dev.

terminal sac stage (26-birth)

32

Type I and Type II alveolar cells are both produced at week 26 during the terminal sac stage of resp. dev. What do each of them do ?

Type I alveolar cells - cells allowing gas exchange
Type II - produce and secrete pulmonary surfactant

33

what are pneumocytes

Type I and type II alveolar cells

34

what is the function of pulmonary surfactant

-reduce surface tension preventing collaps upon exhaling

35

when do Type II alveolar cells start producing surfactant

weeks 20-22 but not enough to survive untill week 26

36

what is respiratory distress syndrome

disease premature babies could suffer from due to insufficient surfactant

37

when do alveoli become fully functional ?

during alveolar stage (week 32-8 years)

38

T/F All alveoli develop and mature before birth

F, 95 % mature postnatally