Olfactory and Visual Systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Olfactory and Visual Systems Deck (58):
1

Bradykinesia (slow movement) would be associated with what disease ?

Parkinsons disease

2

hemiballismus, a dramatic movement disorder would be the result of damage to where in the brain?

subthalamic nucleus

3

Chorea, which causes rapid involuntary movements, is a disorder most commonly associated with what disease ?

Huntingtons disease

4

gait ataxia is most commonly the result of injury to the ______ of the cerebellum

vermis

5

fearless, and placid behavior, known as Kluber-Bucy Syndrome, is the result to injury where ?

amygdala

6

the inability or failure to form new memories would be the result of injury to where in the brain ?

hippocampus

7

hemiparesis and spasticity on one side of the body would occur with an injury to the _______ of the internal capsule

posterior limb

8

dismetria, or the inability to coordinate movements (touch finger to nose tip), would be the result of injury to _____ of the cerebellum

lateral hemisphere

9

what are the 2 main functions of olfaction

taste and smell

10

the origin of the olfactory system that sits in the roof of the nasal cavity is called what ?

olfactory epithelium

11

what does the olofactory epithelium contain

3 million receptor cells
sensory endings for CN V (irritant smells)

12

what is structure of an olfactory receptor and why are the unusual amongst other human nuerons

structure : vesicle w/10-30 cilia emerging out
-unique bc its replaced throughout life as its lifespan is only 1-2 months

13

what are olfactory fila and where do they go ?

-bundles of olfactory axons
-pass through holes in cribiform plate ending in olfactory bulb
**** olfactory fila make up CN I****

14

olfactory bulb develops as an outgrowth of ?

telencephalon

15

what are mitral cells

main projection neuron of olfactory bulb which form olfactory tract

16

what forms the glomerulus in the olfactory bulb

dendrites

17

each olfactory receptor is specific to _______ mitral cell glomerulus

one

18

fibers in the olfactory tract have projections to where ? What 2 are where they generally end ?

-anterior olfactory nucleus
-olfactory tubericle
-Primary Olfactory Cortex (Main end)
-Amygdala (Main end)

19

what two eye structures focus the image on the retina

cornea and lens

20

focusing and image requires what ? which eye structures allow this to happen

refraction
-cornea (70 %)
-lens (30%)

21

what does the iris do ?

affects brightness and quality of image focused on retina

22

the retina has how many nuclear layers ? and how many synapses occur w/in these layers

3 nuclear layers w/ 2 synapse layers

23

what are the 2 photoreceptors in the retina and what is unique to each

Rods - rhodopsin, low acuity and dim light
Cones - high acuity, color, lots of lights

24

what happens to old rod and cone photoreceptor cells as they age

phagocytized by pigment epithelium

25

where is the blind spot in the retina and, how does the brain accomodate for this area

at the optic disk where there are no photoreceptors
-brain automatically fills this space in

26

what is the macula ?

specialization of the retina designed for vision of highest acuity
-contains fovea in center

27

what is the fovea

center of macula
-area of lots of cones and no rods
-area of highest visual acuity

28

what is the thalamic relay nucleus for the optic pathway

lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)

29

after optic tract fibers end in the LGN, where do they project to

visual cortex in occipital lobe

30

Fibers that represent inferior visual fields are the most _______ radiations, whereas fibers representing superior visual fields are _______________

superior, inferior in radiations

31

what part of the internal capsule is involved with the superior visual field

retrolenticular part

32

what part of the internal capsule has optic radiations pertaining to the inferior visual field

sublenticular part

33

Explain the visual fields, which cross and which remain uncrossed

-fibers of nasal half of retina cross at optic chiasm
-fibers of temporal half remain uncrossed

34

what part of the optic pathway is responsible for depth perception

optic chiasm, allows for comparison of areas via each retina

35

The structure of the LGN is made of _____ layers

6

36

what layers of the LGN are responsible for contralateral eye, which layers are responsible for the ipsilateral eye

1,4,6 contralateral
2,3,5 ipsilateral

37

what is the parvocellular layer

layers 3-6 of the LGN responsible for color and form

38

what is the magnocellular layer

layers 1-2 of LGN responsible for movement and contrast

39

who was the first to describe the retinotopic organization of the eye using bullet wound injuries

Dr. Tatsuji Inouye

40

in relation to the occipital lobe, the inferior visual field lies above the _______ whereas the superior visual field lies below this

calcarine sulcus

41

where is the macula represented in reference to position on the occipital lobe

most posteriorly, peripheral fields anteriorly

42

what is the line of gennari

striate cortex, or the thin myelin line in primary visual cortex

43

Visual field deficits are named according to what ?

the part of the visual field that is lost

44

define these terms,
-anopia
-hemianopia
-quadrantanopia
-homonymous
-heteronymous

-anopia - loss of one or more quadrants
-hemianopia - loss of half visual field
-quadrantanopia - loss of quarter of visual field
-homonymous - same visual field lost in each eye
-heteronymous - 2 eyes having non-overalpping field loss

45

damage anterior to the optic chiasm would result in visual field loss for ?

ipsilateral eye

46

damage at the chiasm causes what type of visual field deficits

heteronymous deficit

47

damage to optic tract results in what type of visual field loss

homonymous deficit

48

a lesion in the temporal lobe that interupts Meyers loop would affect what visual field

affect superior visual field cuz meyers loop plays a role in infereior retinal quadrant

49

what is unique about a PCA infarction that results in an eye deficit

the macula is spared in deficit

50

what would happen in the pupillary light reflex if there was a lesion in the occulomotor nerve

-both constrict if shined in unnaffected eye optic nerve
-neither constrict if shine in affected eye optic nerve

51

how would the pupillary light reflex act if ther there was a lesion in the optic radiations

No affect

52

how would a lesion in the visual cortex affect the pupillary light reflex

No effect

53

Besides the LGN to the visual cortex, what are the additional destinations for visual information

-superior colliculus
-hypothalamus
-superchiasmatic nucleus

54

what is the role of the occipital lobe primary visual cortex in vision

Breaks down visual information and distributes to extrastriate cortex

55

the striate and visual cortex in the occipital lobe have a _______ organization

collumnar

56

each cortical module or collumn controls _____ aspect of the visual field

one

57

what layers of the LGN make up the ventral stream of visual information

Parvocellular layers 3-6 responsible for color and form

58

what layers of the LGN are responsible for the dorsal stream of visual information

Magnocellular layers 1-2 responsible for movement and context