Flashcards in Lower Abdomen Deck (40):
what specific part of the small intestine makes up the proximal 2/5 ? what makes up the distal 3/5 ?
proximal 2/5 = jejunem
distal 3/5 = ileum
what are the 3 anatomical divisions of the stomach
fundus, body, pyloric antrum
what is the stomach lined with, and what is their function
rugae - increase surface area to allow for expansion
what part of the small intestine is retroperitoneal
what are plicae circularis
permanent folds lining the small intestine that absorb nutrients
the abdominal aorta divides at what level ?
how are the vasa recta and arterial arcades organized in the jejunem
long vasa recta
short arterial arcades
how are vasa recta and arterial arcades organized in the ileum
short vasa recta
long/large arterial arcades
what part of the small intestine could potentially be involved w/ Meckels diverticulum ? and what could this cause
ileum - umbilical hernia
what marks the start of the large intestine ?
the right colic flexure is also called ? left colic flexure ?
where is the appendix located and what does it empty into ?
-empties into ileocecal orifice
during appendicitis where is pain felt first
periumbilical region referred from T10
what are the 3 specializations of the colon
-haustra coli (outpouchings made by tenia coli)
-epiploic appendages (fat tags)
what is the arterial supply to the upper abdomen from
what is the arterial supply to the lower abdomen
SMA (superior mesenteric artery) and IMA (inferior mesenteric artery)
where is the change in arterial supply from SMA to the IMA for the lower abdomen
SMA supplies proximal 2/3 of TVC
IMA supplies distal 1/3 of TVC
what 3 arteries supply the pancreas or are know as "pancreatic arteries ?
-Superior pancreaticoduodenal a.
-Inferior pancreaticoduodenal a.
the superior pancreaticoduodenal a. is a branch from what a. ?
the inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. is a branch from what a. ?
what arteries supply the kidney and what do they branch from
-lateral branch off of abdominal aorta
what are the gonadal aa. and what do they branch from
females = ovarian a.
males = testicular a.
-both branches off abdominal aorta
what is the main drainage pathway of the lower abdomen
inferior vena cava to right atrium
blood drainage from abdominal viscera has what drainage pathway
portal venous system
-----then to IVC to right atrium
the union of what 2 veins form the portal vein
splenic and SMA vv.
there are 4 Portal-Caval Anastomoses w/in the lower abdomen, what are they ?
- Gastric (P) and Esophageal
- paraumbilical (P) and epigastric
- colic (P) and retroperitoneal
- superior rectal (P) and middle/inferior rectal
which venous system of the lower abdomen has no valves and why is this important
-can cause backflow into caval system if hypertension
what can be the result of dilated caval veins due to backflow from the portal venous system
hemmoroids, vascular rupture, hemmoraging
what are the postganglionic sympathetic ganglia called along the abdominal aorta where the preganglionic splanchnic nerves synapse
collateral ganglia, paraaortic ganglia, -celiac ganglia
where do sympathetic cell bodies from the midgut originate ?
where do sympathetic cell bodies from the hindgut originate
where do parasympathetic fibers (cell bodies) for the lower abdomen innervating the proximal 2/3 of the TVC originate
where do parasympathetic fibers (cell bodies) innervating the distal 1/3 of the TVC originate
what is the preganglionic sympathetic nerve fiber innervating T5-T9
greater splanchnic n.
what is the preganglionic sympathetic nerve fiber innervating T10-T11
lesser splanchnic n.
what is the preganglionic smpathetic fiber innervating T12
least splanchnic n.
what is the preganglionic sympathetic fiber innervating the lumbar region
lumbar splanchnic nerve
what are the 4 major autonomic ganglia associated with the lower abdomen
-superior mesenteric ganglion
-inferior mesenteric ganglion
which autonomic ganglion of the lower abdomen receives fibers from the lumbar splanchnic nn. (sympathetics) and S2-S4 branches (parasympathetics)
inferior mesenteric ganglion