Lower Abdomen Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lower Abdomen Deck (40):
1

what specific part of the small intestine makes up the proximal 2/5 ? what makes up the distal 3/5 ?

proximal 2/5 = jejunem
distal 3/5 = ileum

2

what are the 3 anatomical divisions of the stomach

fundus, body, pyloric antrum

3

what is the stomach lined with, and what is their function

rugae - increase surface area to allow for expansion

4

what part of the small intestine is retroperitoneal

duodenum

5

what are plicae circularis

permanent folds lining the small intestine that absorb nutrients

6

the abdominal aorta divides at what level ?

L4

7

how are the vasa recta and arterial arcades organized in the jejunem

long vasa recta
short arterial arcades

8

how are vasa recta and arterial arcades organized in the ileum

short vasa recta
long/large arterial arcades

9

what part of the small intestine could potentially be involved w/ Meckels diverticulum ? and what could this cause

ileum - umbilical hernia

10

what marks the start of the large intestine ?

cecum

11

the right colic flexure is also called ? left colic flexure ?

hepatic flexure
splenic flexure

12

where is the appendix located and what does it empty into ?

retrocecal
-empties into ileocecal orifice

13

during appendicitis where is pain felt first

periumbilical region referred from T10

14

what are the 3 specializations of the colon

-tenia coli
-haustra coli (outpouchings made by tenia coli)
-epiploic appendages (fat tags)

15

what is the arterial supply to the upper abdomen from

celiac trunk

16

what is the arterial supply to the lower abdomen

SMA (superior mesenteric artery) and IMA (inferior mesenteric artery)

17

where is the change in arterial supply from SMA to the IMA for the lower abdomen

SMA supplies proximal 2/3 of TVC
IMA supplies distal 1/3 of TVC

18

what 3 arteries supply the pancreas or are know as "pancreatic arteries ?

-splenic a.
-Superior pancreaticoduodenal a.
-Inferior pancreaticoduodenal a.

19

the superior pancreaticoduodenal a. is a branch from what a. ?

Gastroduodenal a.

20

the inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. is a branch from what a. ?

SMA

21

what arteries supply the kidney and what do they branch from

renal a.
-lateral branch off of abdominal aorta

22

what are the gonadal aa. and what do they branch from

females = ovarian a.
males = testicular a.
-both branches off abdominal aorta

23

what is the main drainage pathway of the lower abdomen

inferior vena cava to right atrium

24

blood drainage from abdominal viscera has what drainage pathway

portal venous system
-----then to IVC to right atrium

25

the union of what 2 veins form the portal vein

splenic and SMA vv.

26

there are 4 Portal-Caval Anastomoses w/in the lower abdomen, what are they ?

- Gastric (P) and Esophageal
- paraumbilical (P) and epigastric
- colic (P) and retroperitoneal
- superior rectal (P) and middle/inferior rectal

27

which venous system of the lower abdomen has no valves and why is this important

Portal
-can cause backflow into caval system if hypertension

28

what can be the result of dilated caval veins due to backflow from the portal venous system

hemmoroids, vascular rupture, hemmoraging

29

what are the postganglionic sympathetic ganglia called along the abdominal aorta where the preganglionic splanchnic nerves synapse

collateral ganglia, paraaortic ganglia, -celiac ganglia

30

where do sympathetic cell bodies from the midgut originate ?

T5-T12

31

where do sympathetic cell bodies from the hindgut originate

T12-L2

32

where do parasympathetic fibers (cell bodies) for the lower abdomen innervating the proximal 2/3 of the TVC originate

CN X

33

where do parasympathetic fibers (cell bodies) innervating the distal 1/3 of the TVC originate

S2-S4

34

what is the preganglionic sympathetic nerve fiber innervating T5-T9

greater splanchnic n.

35

what is the preganglionic sympathetic nerve fiber innervating T10-T11

lesser splanchnic n.

36

what is the preganglionic smpathetic fiber innervating T12

least splanchnic n.

37

what is the preganglionic sympathetic fiber innervating the lumbar region

lumbar splanchnic nerve

38

what are the 4 major autonomic ganglia associated with the lower abdomen

-celiac ganglion
-superior mesenteric ganglion
-aorticorenal ganglion
-inferior mesenteric ganglion

39

which autonomic ganglion of the lower abdomen receives fibers from the lumbar splanchnic nn. (sympathetics) and S2-S4 branches (parasympathetics)

inferior mesenteric ganglion

40

what 3 ganglion of the lower abdomen recieve fibers from the thoracic splanchnic nn. (sympathetics) and CN X (parasympathetics)

-celiac ganglion
-superior mesenteric ganglion
-aorticorenal ganglion