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Flashcards in Respiratory system Deck (45):

3 principle functions of the respiratory system, AND its t2o side functions

1-air conduction
2-air filtration
3-gas exchange
-speech (phonation)


what are the 2 functional divisions of the respiratory system, and what are the components w/in each

conducting division - nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bonchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles
respiratory division - respiratory bronchiols, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli


what blood vessels from the heart enter the lungs and branch as they follow the bronchiole tree ?

right pulmonary vessels carrying deoxygenated blood


where does air "conditioning" occur and what happens during this ?

occurs in conducting division
-air is warmed, moistened via mucous and serous secretions via goblet cells
-cilia sweep particles away from lungs


what are the 3 layers of the walls of the conducting system pasageways from innermost to out



what type of epithelium makes up the mucosal layer of conducting passageways

respiratory epithelium
-ciliated pseudostratified collumnar epithelium
-some nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium


what are the 3 cell types found w/in respiratory epithelium

1 - ciliated collumnar cells
2 - goblet cells (mucous secretions)
3 - basal cells (stem cells)


Not all areas of the conduction system have 3 layers in their walls, specifically when do the submucosa and adventitia layers start to appear

trachea region


what are internal nares called ? what about external nares

internal nares - choanae
external nares - nostrils


where would you find nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium in "respitory epithelium"

in areas of high friction


what is the function of the pharynx

-connects nasal/oral cavities to larynx and esophagus
-passageway for food and air


what are the 3 parts of the pharynx, and function of each

1 - nasopharynx - air passageway
2 - oropharynx - food/air passageway
3 - laryngopharynx - food/air passageway


what type of epithelium would you find at the 3 different parts of the pharyn

-nasopharynx - ciliated psuedostratified collumnar ep.
-oropharynx - nonkeratinized stratified squamous ep.
-laryngopharynx - nonkeratinized stratified squamous ep.


what is the function of the larynx

-air passageway b/w laryngopharynx and trachea
-conducts air and is the organ of speech (phonation)


what is the purpose of cartilage rings found in the larynx

-keep an open airway useful in sound prod, and swallowing


cartilage rings made of hyaline cartilage in the larynx form ?

thyroid and ciricoid cartilages


cartilage rings made of elastic cartilage in the larynx make up ?

epiglottis, cuneiform, and corniculate cartilages


what type of larynx feature is made of a mix hyaline and elastic cartilage

arytenoid cartilages


what closes the entrance into the larynx to prevent food from entering the lungs during swallowing



intrinsic muscles connected to the _______ cartilages can change the pitch of sounds



what is the function of the trachea, what is it made up of and what does it divide into ?

conduit for air
-C shaped hyaline cartilage rings
-divides into 2 primary bronchi


what are the 4 layers of the wall of the trachea from in to out

-cartilaginous layer w. trachealis m.


the basement membrane of the respiratory epithelium is the thickest in what part of the conduction system

mucosa layer of the trachea


where is the esophagus in relation to the trachea

posterior to trachea,
***reason for opening of C shaped rings on posterior trachea****


as the conducting system passageways branch and become smaller in diameter, what 3 things happen

1 - cartilage decreases
2 - smooth muscle decreases
3 - lining of epithelial cells decreases


what does the SNS and PNS affect the smooth muscle of the conducting system

SNS - relaxes smooth m to dilate airways = more O2
PNS - constricts smooth. = less O2


what is the diff. b/w the right and left main bronchi

right is shorter, wider, and more vertical
***reason why most shit gets stuck in right bronchi***


what do main/primary bronchi divide into ?

secondary/lobar bronchi
-3 on the right
-2 on the left


what do secondary/lobar bronchi divide into

tertiary/segmental bronchi
-10 on right
-8/10 on left


what makes up a bronchopulmonary segment

1 tertiary bronchi + surrounding vessels and tissue septa


what are the 5 layers of the walls of bronchi from out to in

musculuaris (smooth m. layer)
cartilaginous layer


what characteristics of bronchioles set them apart from bronchi

-1 mm or less in diameter
-No cartilage in walls
-no glnads in submucosa


what type of epithelium do you find in bronchioles and how does it change as they get smaller in diameter

starts as ciliated pseudostratified collumnar epithelium
---> ciliated simple columnar epithelium
-----------> ciliated simple cuboidal epithelium


what type of epithelium would you find in the terminal and respiratory bronchioles

ciliated simple cuboidal epithelium
-cilia lost as move distally


what is the function of Clara cells and where would they be fou8nd

-secrete lipoprotein preventing bronchial wall adhesion during exhalation( similar to surfactant)
-found in terminal and resp. bronchioles


in the resp. bronchioles, what is the diff. in cell types found proximally vs. distally

proximally find ciliated cells and clara cells
distally on clara cells


when looking at a cross section how can you tell the difference b/w a terminal bronchiole and a resp. bronchiole

you will see change from epithelial lining in terminal bronchioles, to a alveloi lining in resp. bronchioles
****start of gas exchange****


what is the diff. b/w the alveolar duct and alveolar sac

duct has an alveoli lining like a hallway
sac is blind ended cul-de-sac w/alveoli around it


what is the term for the wall seperating two alveoli

alveolar septum or interalveolar septum


what are the 5 types of cells found w/in the alveolar septum

1 - Type I alveoli cells
2 - Type 2 alveoli cells
3 - alveolar macrophages
4 - endothelial cells
5 - fibroblasts


what is the diff. b/w type I and type II alveoli cells

type I - make up 95 % of alveoli surface and are lining cells
type II - 5% of surface and secrete surfactant to lower surface tension


what is the cause of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)

-disease in premature babies whose lungs havent fully developed yet to produce surfactant cuz no type II alveolar cells


T/F the alveolar septum is important for gas exchange ?



what seperates the air in the alveolus from the blood in capillaries

respiratory membrane or blood-air barrier
***where gas exchange takes place***


the blood-air barrier is composed of what 3 things ?

-type I alveloli lining cells
-fused BL of alveolar cells and capillary endothelial cells
-cytoplasm of endothelial cells