Histology of Digestive System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Histology of Digestive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Histology of Digestive System Deck (52):
1

what are the associated or accessory digestive organs

tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder

2

what are the 4 main tissue layers of the digestive system from the lumen outward

-mucosa
-submucosa
-muscularis externa
-serosa/adventitia

3

the lamina propria is in what tissue layer of the digestive system ?

mucosal layer

4

what main tissue layer has an inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal layer ? what is the purpose of each ?

Muscularis externa
-inner circular - constricts lumen in peristalsis
-outer longitudinal - dilates lumen in peristalsis

5

where is the myenteric nerve plexus found, and what is its function

found b/w inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of the muscularis externa
-its the brain function of dig. system that controls peristalsis movements

6

what is the muscle tissue of the lumen in the proximal 1/3 of the esophagus ? middle 1/3 ? distal 1/3 ?

proximal 1/3 - skeletal muscle
middle - mixed
distal 1/3 - smooth muscle

7

the mesothelium can be found in what major layer of the digestive system

serosa

8

what type of epithelium is the mucosal lining in the esophagus ?

nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

9

what layer would the esophageal glands (proper) be found in the GI system

submucosal layer throughout esophagus

10

what layer would esophageal cardiac glands be found ?

lamina propria of mucosal layer in distal esophagus

11

what is the function of the stomach

-physical breakdown
-chemical breakdown of lipids and proteins
-10 % absorbtion

12

what type of epithelium is the mucosal lining of the stomach ?

simple collumnar epithelium

13

how many individual layers are w/in the muscularis externa in the esophagus ? stomach ?

esophagus - 2
stomach - 3

14

what are the 3 layers of the muscularis externa in the stomach from the lumen outward

inner oblique
middle circular
outer longitudinal

15

what anatomical region of the stomach would you find gastrin glands ? what do they do ?

fundus/body of the stomach in the mucosal layer
-secrete HCl and pepsinogen

16

how do secretions from glands w/in the mucosal layer reach the lumen ?

secretions travel through gastric pits and then into lumen
(glands are located at base of pit)

17

how can you tell the difference b/w cardiac glands and pyloric glands

both at base of gastric pits BUT
-gastric pits leading to pyloric glands are much longer

18

what are the folds w/in the stomach called

rugae

19

all glands w/in the stomach NEVER go past or extend into what tissue layer

muscularis externa

20

what are the 3 parts of the fundus of the stomach

isthmus, neck, and base

21

what special cells will you find in the isthmus of the (fundus) stomach

stem cells

22

what special cells will you find in the neck of the (fundus) stomach

mucous neck cells, parietal cells

23

what is the function of mucous surface and mucous neck cells

secrete mucous and adsorption

24

what is the function of parietal cells and where are they found

in the neck of the fundus of the stomach
-secrete HCl and intrinsic factor for absorption

25

what special cells will you find in the base of the (fundus) stomach

-chief cells
-G cells (enteroendocrine)

26

what is the function of chief cells and where can you find them

base of the fundus
-secrete pepsinogen (break down proteins)
-sectrete gastric lipase (break down fats)

27

what is the function of G cells and

base of the fundus
-secrete gastrin which stimulates parietal cells to secrete HCl

28

where does 90 percent of absoprtion in the body take place

small intestine

29

what are plicae circularis

small circular folds of the small intestine designed to increase surface area
-composed of a villus w/ multiple microvilli at surface

30

what does the small intestine digest

nucleic acids

31

the epithelial mucosal lining of the small intestine is what ?

simple collumnar epitheliu

32

what are crypts of Lieberkuhn and where are they found

intestinal glands found in small intestine at base b/w the villi in the mucosal layer or in mucosal layer of large int.
-Never extend into submucosa

33

where would you find more goblet cells the small intestine or large

large intestine cuz they are water absorbative cells

34

how many individual layers of the muscular externa is there in the small int.

2
-inner circular
-outer longitudinal

35

what are Brunner's glands and where can they be found

glands in duodenum in the submucosal layer
-produce alkaline mucous to buffer stomach pH

36

what are paneth cells and where can they be found

-secrete lysozymes for digestion of bacterial cell walls
and regulate normal bacterial flora
-found in the crypt of lieberkuhn in mucosal layer of small int./

37

what are fingerlike projections of the small intestine designed for adsorption

villi

38

in the ileum of the small intestine, aggregations of lymph follicles in the lamina propria and submucosa are referred to as ?

Peyer's patches

39

what are the specialized cells in ileum overlying the peyers patches and what is their purpose

M (microfold) cells
-present antigens

40

the absorptive cells in the small intestine are called

enterocytes

41

the adsorptive cells in the large intestine are called

colonocytes

42

what is the tenia coli and what part of GI tract is it found

band of smooth muscle in the muscularis externa layer of the large intestine

43

why are paneth cells not found in the large intestine

Because we need bacteria in the large intestines and paneth cells KILL bacteria

44

what is the function of the pancreas

98%- exocrine gland to secrete enzymes to surface
2 % - endocrine gland

45

where at in the distal part of the GI tract would you find a shift in the mucosal epithelial lining from simple collumnar epithelium to nonkeratinzed stratified squamous epithelium

recto-anal junction

46

where would you find islets of langerhans

pancreas

47

where does the liver recieve blood from

25 % - oxygenated blood from hepatic artery
75 % - deoxygenated nutrient-rich blood from hepatic portal vein

48

the liver is what shape anatomically

6 sided hepatic lobules

49

what are the type of cells that make bile

hepatocytes

50

what are the large phagocytic cells lining the sinusoids of the liver

Kupffer cells (type of macrophage)

51

explain the path of blood from when it enters the liver to final destination in the hear

enters then to liver sinusoids
---> central vein -----> hepatic vein
-------->inferior vena cava ----------> right atrium of heart

52

what is at each of the 6 corners of the liver

portal triad