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Flashcards in Forebrain and Limbic System Deck (57):
1

the diencephalon is anatomically a large part of the forebrain, what are the 4 divisions of the diencephalon

epithalamus
thalamus
hypothalamus
subthalamus

2

what seperates the hypothalamus from the thalamus

hypothalamic sulcus

3

what are the 2 main regions of the epithalamus

-pineal gland
-habenula

4

what is the function of the pineal gland

secrete melatonin and regulate sleep wake cycle

5

what is the major input, and major output for the habenula (part of epithalamus)

input - stria meddularis and limbic
output - habenulointerpeduncular tract to midbrain

6

what is known as the "gateway to the cortex", and why does it get this name

thalamus - relays all sensory pathways to the cortex (except olfaction)

7

there are many types of thalamic nuclei, what anatomically divides these subdivisions of nuclei w/in the thalamus

internal medullary lamina (IML)

8

what thalamic nuclei does not follow the general scheme for thalamic nuclei, and is known as a gatekeeper nuclei

reticular nucleus

9

all thalamic nuclei (except reticular) follow the same general theme as what they are composed of, what is it ?

-projection neurons to cortex
-interneurons regulating firing

10

what are the 2 basic types of inputs to the thalamus

-specific inputs
-regualtory inputs

11

what are the 3 broad types of thalamic nuclei

1 - relay nuclei
2 - association nuclei
3 -intralaminar and midline nuclei

12

what type of thalamic nuclei recieve input from well defined subcortical sources and then project to cortex

relay nuclei

13

what type of thalamic nuclei recieve distinct input from the basal ganglia and limbic strucutres

intralaminar and midline nuclei

14

what type of thalamic nuclei recieve input from the association cortex

association nuclei

15

what specific nueclei of the thalamus is an important source of regulatory input to the thalamus

reticular nucleus

16

what is the output of the reticular nucleus

inhibitory axons to thalamus
**** no projections to cortex ****

17

what are the specific motor relay nuclei of the thalamus

-ventral anterior (VA)
-ventral lateral (VL)

18

what is the specific sensory relay nuclei for the the body in the thalamus

ventral posterior lateral (VPL)

19

what is the specific sensory relay nuclei for the face

ventral posterior medial (VPM)

20

what is the specific thalamic nuclei that is a relay nucleus for the limbic system

anterior nucleus

21

what is the thalamic relay nuclei for vision

lateral geniculate nucleus

22

what is the thalamic relay nucleus for hearing

medial geniculate nucleus

23

what specific thalamic nuclei is a component of the reticular activating system

intralaminar nucleus

24

what are the two main association nuclei of the thalamus

1 - dorsomedial (DM) - from the prefontal association cortex
2 - Pulvinar LP complex - from the parietal-occipital-temporal lobe of the association cortex

25

what fibers pass through the internal capsule

-thalamocortical fibers
-corticothalamic fibers

26

what is the lenticular nucleus made up of

putamen and globus pallidus

27

what are the 5 parts of the internal capsule

1 - anterior limb
2 - posterior limb
3 - genu
4 - retrolenticular
5 - sublenticular

28

a stroke to what part of the internal capsule would be the most severe clinically ?

stroke in the posterior limb = worst
***cuz would result in contralateral motor loss ***

29

what is the main function of the limbic system

generate fellings/emotions from sensory inputs

30

what are the primary structures (parts of brain) that make up the limbic system

-amygdala
-hippocampus
-parahippocampal gyrus
-cingulate
-hypothalamus

31

what part of the brain is responsible for maintaining homeostasis

hypothalamus

32

what are the 3 types of connections with the hypothalamus

-limbic system
-pituitary gland
-visceral/somatic nuclei

33

what is the longitudinal organizational regions of the hypothalamus

-anterior region
-tubular region
-posterior region

34

what is the medial-lateral organization of the hypothalamus

-medial
-perivent
-lateral

35

the lateral region of the hypothalamus is a rostral continuation of ___________ whereas the perivent region is the rostral continuation of __________

reticular formation
periaqueductal gray

36

what are the 2 MAIN inputs to the hypothalamus

1 - forebrain, especially limbic system
2 - brainstem and spinal cord

37

septal nuclei, ventral striatum, insula, hippocampus, and amygdala are all hypothalamic inputs from what main area ?

forebrain (limbic structures)

38

T/F the hypothalamic outputs use seperate pathways than the inputs.

F - both inputs and outputs use the same pathway

39

what are the 2 lobes of the pituitary gland

adenohypophysis (anterior lobe)
neurohypophysis (posterior lobe)

40

what are the 2 hormones the hypothalamus secretes

antidiuertic hormone (ADH)
oxytocin

41

what is the emotion center of the brain

amygdala
***largely involved in emotion-related aspects of learning***

42

where where is the amygdala located anatomically

anterior and medial temporal lobe

43

the amygdala has 3 nuclei groups, what are they and what is the general function of each

medial nuclei -olfaction
central nuclei - emotional responses
basolateral - emotional responses

44

the amygdala recieves inputs from almost everywhere in the brain, what are the 4 basic input routes ?

1 - stria terminalis
2 - ventral amygdalofugal (VAG)
3 - lateral olfactory tract
4 - direct from temporal lobe cortex and hippocampus

45

T/F The output routes for the amygdala are the same as the input routes ?

True (stria terminalis, VAG, lateral olfactory tract)

46

the amygdala links perception of a situation with an emotional response, especially when ?

during danger situations

47

hypothalamic inputs go through the _______ bundle and __________ fasiculus

medial forbrain bundle (MFB) and dorsal longitudinal fasiculus (DLF)

48

the limbic loop in the basal ganglia associates stimuli with _______ resulting in what ?

rewards, resulting in increased Ventral striatum dopamine release

49

what is Kluver-Bucy Syndrome, and a lesion to what part of the brain would cause this

where one beomes fearless with no emotional reactions, men try to fuck everything
-occurs when lesion to amygdala

50

what is the main function of the hippocampus

formation of new memories and past experiences
***also known as Declarative (explicit) memory

51

where is the hippocampus anatomically

little swirl in the medial temporal lobe

52

what is the most important hippocampal output pathway

fornix

53

what are the 3 distinct zones of the hippocampus

-dentate gyrus
-hippocampus proper
-subiculum

54

what are the "interlocking C's" in hippocampal structure

dentate gyrus and hippocampus proper

55

starting from afferents from the sensory cortex, expalin the hippocampal loop or input/output flow

affferents ---> entorhinal cortex ---> dentate gyrus -----> CA3 ----> CA1 ----> subiculum ----> fimbira and back to entorhinal cortex ----> back to sensory cortex

56

most sensory info comes into the hippocampus in the _________ and most outflow is through the _______ ?

entorhinal cortex - IN
subiculum to fornix -OUT

57

what is the circuit of Papez

he was the first to describe the neural circuit for control of emotional expression, over time this theory has been modified though and is known to function in memory (not emotion)